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[«] Posts From the Blog "Evangelical Textual Criticism"(#195)

March 20, 12 AM

Below is the editors' overview of the new Festschrift for John Nolland: The Earliest Perceptions of Jesus in Context: Essays in Honour of John Nolland. Thanks to Aaron White for providing it.These essays  have been written by a number of friends... [John Nolland] [New Book] [t&t clark]

March 19, 5PM

Congrats to Miguel M. who won our latest ETC blog giveaway. His copy of A New Approach to Textual Criticism is in the mail. For those that didn’t win, Amazon now has the paperback for just $13.28 which is 33% off. With free shipping, that’s cheap... [A New Approach to Textual Criticism] [givewaway]

12 AM

John Meade, who is currently gallivanting around North Carolina, alerted me to an article over at aeon which is relevant to this blog. It is about the different conception of “original” and “copy” in China. I’m not sure what I think honestly, bu... [original text]

March 17, 3PM

We are delighted to feature the newly baked Dr. Alan Taylor Farnes in this guest blogpost where he summarizes his work on scribal habits in copies where the exemplar is preserved.  Well done Dr. Farnes!Scribal Habits in New Testament Copies with Exta... [Alan Taylor Farnes] [Dissertation] [exemplar and copy] [University of Birmingham] [Vorlage]

12 AM

Over at the Gospel Coalition, Mike Kruger has a review of Bart Ehrman’s latest book. It’s another popular volume, this one on why Christianity spread so quickly, a topic Kruger and his Doktorvater have recently published on as well. The surprising thi... [Bart Ehrman] [Book Reviews] [Gospel Coalition] [Michael Kruger]

March 16, 3AM

THGNT Blog: Variants in the Passion Narrative (5)This post is part of a series [2018] on some of the textual variants found in the Passion narratives. We will discuss the rationale behind the text adopted in the Greek New Testament as Produced at Tyndale ...

March 14, 2AM

I received this notice, which should be of wide interest.--------------Dear colleagues,We are delighted to announce the advertisement of three postdoctoral fellowships at ITSEE (the Institute for Textual Scholarship and Electronic Editing at the Universit...


In this post, I give a few examples wherein Theodotion, Aquila, or Symmachus reflect a different vocalization of the consonantal text than what the later Masoretes recorded as the traditional reading. The issue is this: how closely do the Three (1–2 cen... [Aquila] [Isaiah] [Jewish Revisions] [Job] [Masoretic Text] [Symmachus] [Theodotion]

March 12, 12 AM

It’s time for another ETC blog giveaway! This time we’re giving away mine and Tommy’s recent book on the CBGM. Enter to win below.a Rafflecopter giveawayAbout the bookAn essential introduction for scholars and students of New Testament GreekWith the... [givewaway]

March 10, 1AM

Faithlife, producers of Logos Bible Software, have a new film (what don’t these people do??) coming out about New Testament manuscripts. It looks apologetic-y and is hosted by Craig Evans. Below is the description and the promo video. You may see s... [Craig Evans] [Documentary] [faithlife] [film] [Fragments of Truth] [video clip]

March 9, 3AM

THGNT Blog: Variants in the Passion Narrative (4)This post is part of a series [2018] on some of the textual variants found in the Passion narratives. We will discuss the rationale behind the text adopted in the Greek New Testament as Produced at Tyndale ...

March 8, 12 AM

Over at the Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft website, there is a German press release about a recent meeting of the new NA/UBS committee. Below is a translation into English. The most important news here is the expected date (2021/22) and the expected changes c... [Editorial Committee] [German Bible Society] [NA29] [Nestle-Aland editions] [UBS committee] [UBS6]

March 7, 2AM

A while ago, Pete Head raised an issue concerning the lack of the positive apparatus for a 'diamond' reading at 1 John 2:4. Diamond readings are a well-known convention of the ECM. For those that might not be cognisant of it: in ECM (and now, in the Catho...

March 6, 2AM

Please, excuse this blatant, self-promoting announcement. I felt compelled to post this one because presentations on Origen’s magnum opus rarely, if ever, occur outside the confines of the academic guild. And I’m sure these venues, if they exist ... [Hexapla] [Southeastern Seminary]

March 5, 9AM

Our latest blog giveaway has now ended and Christopher Atkins at Houston Baptist University has won himself a free copy of John Meade and Ed Gallagher’s Biblical Canon Lists. Congrats, Chris!Thanks to all who entered. For those who didn... [givewaway]

March 2, 3AM

THGNT Blog: Variants in the Passion Narrative (3)This post is part of a series [2018] on some of the textual variants found in the Passion narratives. We will discuss the rationale behind the text adopted in the Greek New Testament as Produced at Tyndale ...

February 28, 3PM

More translation news today. On their Facebook page, the Lockman Foundation announces a revision of the New American Standard Bible which is underway. I’m guessing they are feeling the heat from updates to the ESV, NIV, and CSB.Update on the NASB r... [Bible Translation] [NASB] [translation]

February 26, 1AM

It’s time for another ETC blog giveaway! In this edition, we’re giving away a brand new copy of John Meade and Edmon Gallagher’s The Biblical Canon Lists from Early Christianity: Texts and Analysis (Oxford). To enter, do any or all of the thing... [Biblical Canon Lists] [givewaway]

February 24, 1PM

Yes, it seems that about every three months or so First-Century Mark reappears. I hate to keep adding fuel to the fire, but there is some value to keeping a record of these things.This latest mention of the fragment came to me in my Twitter feed via Sean ... [First-century Mark] [Gary Habermas]

February 23, 3AM

THGNT Blog: Variants in the Passion Narrative (2)This post is part of a series [2018] on some of the textual variants found in the Passion narratives. We will discuss the rationale behind the text adopted in the Greek New Testament as Produced at Tyndale ... [Matt 27:49] [Passion Narrative] [Tyndale House Greek New Testament]

12 AM

Today, there is a renewed focus on the primary sources pertaining to the New Testament text (just peruse most of the posts on this blog) and its canon. Some of our source material is relatively new (MS finds, whole works of church fathers rediscovered etc... [canon] [canon criteria] [early christianity] [Inspiration] [Lee Martin McDonald] [Michael Kruger]

February 22, 12 AM

NOT the Silver-haired AssassinMatt 18.11 It is one of a dozen or so verses that are completely missing (relative to the KJV) from modern English Bibles. It follows Matthew’s version of the parable of the lost sheep and fits quite well in that role.... [Byzantine priority] [harmonizations] [Matthew 18.11] [Maurice Robinson] [Parable of the Lost Sheep]

February 19, 1AM

What was the Hexapla? There is the question of what were the readings that were at one time in the Hexapla as presented here, here, and here. Then, there is the question of what was the Hexapla? We have to ask this question because it was n... [asterisk] [Cairo Geniza] [critical signs] [Eusebius] [Hebrew Column] [Hexapla] [Matthew Commentary] [obelus] [origen] [palimpsest] [Ra 1098] [Ra 2005]

February 16, 3AM

THGNT Blog: Variants in the Passion Narrative (1)This is the first of a series of blog post on some of the textual variants found in the Passion narratives. We will discuss the rationale behind the text adopted in the Greek New Testament as Produced at Ty...


One of the treats of working on the ECM is the sheer exposure to a wide array of manuscripts from a variety of periods. Normally, you're simply assigned manuscripts you'd be working on, not necessarily on the basis of your preference. Coming from more of ... [apocalypse] [beast] [Codex Alexandrinus] [cup] [David Attenborough] [GA 02] [GA 69] [Leicester] [Rev 14:9] [Revelation] [Tabernacle] [weird] [Worship]

February 15, 1AM

It’s probably fair to say that Junia has never been more popular. At least four books have been written about her in the last 20 years and she remains—I can’t help it—well known among those debating the role of women in the church.The Junia Projec... [Eldon J. Epp] [Junia] [Rom 16:7] [Scot McKnight]

February 14, 1AM

In David Kimhi: The Man and the Commentaries by Frank Ephraim Talmage (Harvard, 1975), we read the following assessment of Origen's Book and Jerome's Vulgate from R. Joseph Kimhi (1105-1170; father of David):[Jerome's text was based on] the Book of Origen... [David Kimhi] [Hexapla] [jerome] [origen] [Vulgate]

February 12, 1AM

The New Testament books were written at a significant time in Jewish Greek literary history. Most of the Hebrew Scriptures had been translated at various times and in various places by 132 BC (cf. the Prologue to Sirach’s reference to the Law and the Pr... [2 Corinthians 11:3] [allusions] [Aquila] [kaige tradition] [OG Genesis 3:1] [Symmachus] [Theodotion]

February 9, 8AM

A new book is out which may be of interest to our readers, Apocalypse Illuminated: The Visual Exegesis of Revelation in Medieval Illustrated Manuscripts by Richard K. Emmerson published by Penn State University Press.A description and preview is available... [Book Note] [illuminations] [Revelation]

February 8, 7AM


The team at ETC wishes all a happy International Septuagint Day. Do all you can today to promote the study and reading of the Septuagint (even if that means working to erase the name “Septuagint” for Peter Williams—I tease).In that spirit, I want to... [IOSCS] [Septuagint] [Septuagint Day]

February 7, 1AM

I've been getting into the spirit of International Septuagint Day (Feb 8) with recent posts on Symmachus and Greek Job and Modern Editions of the Hexaplaric Fragments. Today, I want to draw attention to a post on Septuaginta &C., where William Ross ha... [Claude Cox] [Old Greek Job] [Septuagint Summer Course] [Trinity Western University]

February 6, 12 PM

As some of you may remember, Brent Nongbri and I have recently had a nice back and forth about palaeographical method. It started with my post on the Egerton Gospel, where I mentioned some hesitations about Brent's recent suggestions concerning P66 and P7... [Brent Nongbri] [Dating] [P66] [P75] [palaeography] [Pasquale Orsini]

February 5, 1AM

Last week, I posted on a small part of Origen's Hexapla in Job 24:25, and before writing further posts on the matter, readers should be aware of the modern editions of the Hexapla. There is a lot to say about the history of the Hexapla and research into i... [Hexapla] [Hexapla Institute] [hexaplaric fragments] [modern critical editions]

February 1, 12 AM

Over at my seminary’s blog, I have written a three-part series on what a pastor should know about developments in textual criticism. (Generally, I had in mind someone who’s been out of seminary for a decade or more.) I covered new editions, metho... [developments in textual criticism] [pastors]

January 31, 1AM

In preparation of my critical edition of the Hexaplaric fragments of Job 22-42 for the Hexapla Project, I am noticing again some of the gems among the texts of Aquila, Symmachus, and Theodotion that Origen once assembled in full parallel columns but now c... [exegesis] [Hebrew Bible] [Hexapla] [Job 24:25] [Old Greek Job] [origen] [Symmachus] [Textual Criticism] [Theodotion]

January 29, 1AM

Nestle 13th edition (1927)Reading through a recently acquired Nestle 13th ed. I was surprised to find that the NA28 is not the first in this venerable edition’s line to use the diamond symbol. The current edition uses them, of course, to mark places whe... [Amsterdam Database of New Testament Conjectural Emendation] [conjectural emendations] [Nestle-Aland editions]

January 27, 3AM

Over at the Jesus Blog, Chris Keith has posted comments from Maurice Robinson on 284 and the PA. More importantly, Chris Keith has christened him the the “Silver-Haired Assassin,” a perfectly fitting title in my view. Henceforth, I require a... [Maurice Robinson] [Pericope adulterae]

January 25, 1AM

Interesting news from the SBL annual report this week is that SBL is planning to oversee a review and revision of the NRSV translation. What really surprised me about this was how prominently textual criticism is in the explanation. From the report:SBL to... [Bible Translation] [NRSV] [SBL]

January 24, 5PM

In THGNT the editors have accepted non-enclitic indefinite τίς in a number of instances. I've mentioned this type of indefinite here and its appearance in GNT has generated discussions here and here.One case where we vary accentuation i...


It is often noted that Mark's Gospel is not well represented among our early manuscripts of the Greek New Testament or in citations and comments in the Early Fathers (see e.g. Head, 2012).So I was interested in reading through Origen's Contra Celsum (as o... [Amy Donaldson] [check the Greek text] [Levi] [Mark] [origen]

January 23, 1AM

There has been some good discussion of canon on the blog of late, and as usual, the matter of the meaning of canon arises. Does “canon” apply to particular text forms of books (e.g. the Gospel of Mark with or without the longer ending; or the longer a... [Biblical Canon Lists] [Bruce Metzger] [canon of scripture]

January 20, 7AM

Yesterday morning, at the G3 conference in Atlanta, GA, James White of Alpha and Omega Ministries and Michael Kruger of Reformed Theological Seminary in Charlotte held a good discussion of the canon of scripture (mostly the New Testament canon), and often... [canon] [James White] [Michael Kruger] [text form]

January 18, 6AM

P.Köln VI 255 (inv. 608) → (Image courtesy of the Kölner Papyrussammlung website) One of the helpful trends in more recent palaeography has been marked by a more explicit recognition of virtually impossibility to assign narrow, 'precise' dat...

January 16, 12 PM

Let’s take a poll on this statement from Carl E. Armerding: “Moreover, the development of an authoritative text is a natural corollary to an authoritative list of books.”*Is the development of an authoritative text a natural corollary to an aut... [canon] [Poll] [theology]

January 13, 12 AM

The seeming dullness of our subject area inevitably limits the number of books a typical text-critic writes in their lifetime. Article-writing, then, is one of the fundamental ways in which we unleash our groundbreaking ideas onto unsuspecting scholarly p...

January 11, 2AM

There is a new tool in town for searching morphological analysis of 5 million words in the Duke Database of Ducmentary Papyri. I've only been able to have a brief play around so far (on αὐθεντέω which has only five occurrences [4 of which are ver...

January 8, 3PM

The Swiss Protestant divine, Louis Gaussen (1790–1863) Sometimes its useful to remember that most of objections to the Bible have been raised before. It provides some perspective, especially to those just made aware of some sensational objection an... [Apologetics] [Bart Ehrman] [Louis Gaussen]

12 AM

Not long ago, we discussed on the blog whether or not the story of the woman caught in adultery (John 7.53–8.11) should be read and taught as Scripture. I remain somewhat torn myself though I lean toward a negative answer. Regardless of that larger ques... [Greek New Testament editions] [Hort letters] [Pericope adulterae] [Westcott and Hort]

January 6, 2PM

A few years ago I blogged about the work of W. Brent Seales, a computer scientist at the University of Kentucky, who has found a way to read manuscript texts using CT scans. Back in 2015 he used it to read the 6th century Ein Gedi scroll of Leviticus... [Acts] [Coptic] [CT scans] [Morgan Library] [MS M.910] [Technology] [W. Brent Seales]

January 5, 1AM

I’m not one for new year’s resolutions, but I do like to set concrete goals from time to time. One that I started several years ago was to read through my Greek New Testament at least once a year. I had tried before but failed. One reason is that othe... [bible reading]

January 4, 5AM

SUMMER COURSE IN PAPYROLOGY, UNIVERSITY OF OSLO, 18-22 JUNE 2018The Dept. of Philosophy, Classics, History of Art and Ideas, University of Oslo and the Papyrus Collection of the University of Oslo Library invite applications for participation in the sum...

December 26 2017, 11PM

The arrival of the THGNT has provoked us to think afresh about matters we normally take for granted like orthography, paragraphing, and even punctuation. With that provocation in mind, I was interested to see this description in my newly-acquired NA26, th... [Bruce Metzger] [Formatting] [Nestle-Aland editions] [paragraphing]


On Christmas Eve, the American news magazine, 60 Minutes, aired a good segment on the work of Father Columba and Father Najeeb Michaeel to save manuscripts in Northern Iraq. Father Columba runs the excellent Hill Museum & Manuscript Library.... [Digitised Manuscripts] [Hill Museum & Manuscript Library]

December 25, 12 AM

Thankfully, you don’t have to have gold, Frankenstein, or myrrh to celebrate the birth of Jesus. To all our blog readers, merry Christmas and a happy 2018! [Christmas]

December 21, 5AM

Here is a pressrelease from the International Greek New Testament Project (IGNTP) announcing that 350 transcriptions can be downloaded and are freely available for re-use: Open Data Release by the International Greek New Testament Projec...

12 AM

There is much rejoicing about the benefits of computer technology for the humanities in general and for New Testament textual criticism in particular. I too rejoice as I suspect you do. Who among us is not thrilled, for example,  by the ease of ... [Codex Sinaiticus] [Codex Sinaiticus website] [ECM digital edition] [Technology]

December 20, 9AM

In a recent publication on the nomina sacra in Mark in Vaticanus (see here) Peter Malik notices that there are only five places in the New Testament portion of Codex Vaticanus where Ἰησοῦς is not contracted. Two of these are the interesting (empha... [Christmas.] [Codex Vaticanus] [jesus] [Matt 1.21] [nomina sacra] [Peter Malik]

December 19, 10AM

Some of my students brought this video to my attention yesterday. It is James White, a well-known apologist and debater in the States, discussing the CBGM on his show The Dividing Line. Starting at about the 19:19 mark (video below), he mentions the Text ... [CBGM] [James White] [video clip]

December 15, 2AM

I've been doing some work in the last couple of days on my SBL paper ('Epistolary Secretarial Greetings in the Documentary Papyri and the Greeting from Tertius in Romans 16.22'*) so that I can submit it for print publication. Most of the paper is papyrolo...

December 13, 1AM

Back when I had time for such things, I did a bit of digging into how early Protestant theologians viewed the role of the autographs in their doctrine of Scripture. For Evangelicals, the qualification that the Biblical text is inerrant in the autographs&n... [autographs] [Theodore Letis] [theology]

December 11, 2AM

If the story of the woman caught in adultery in John 7.53–8.11 is not original to the fourth Gospel, as I think, does it follow that it should not be used as Scripture? The same question confronts us with the Longer Ending of Mark, a text which, as I ha... [John 7.53-8.11] [Pericope adulterae] [theology]

December 8, 7AM

There's been quite a lot of press excitement about Pope Francis wanting to change the translation of Lord's Prayer (The Telegraph, The Times, etc,). It wasn't easy to find the original interview online. Therefore I thought it would be good to present the ...

December 1, 5PM

What do folks think about the long variant in Matt 16.2–3? NA28 along with Tischendorf and WH have it in brackets. SBLGNT, THGNT (and Tregelles), and RP include it. UBS4 gives it a “C” rating.Here is the text:Καὶ προσελθόντες οἱ ... [gospels] [Matt 16.2-3] [omissions]

November 27, 1AM

Credit to Matt Solomon for the action shotThe audio from my and Elijah Hixson’s special session at ETS a week or so ago is now online. The session was titled “Growing Up in the Ehrman Era: Retrospect and Prospect on Our Text-Critical Apologetic.” Th... [Apologetics] [Audio] [ETS 2017]

November 23, 11AM

At SBL this week, Elijah Hixson presented his discovery of lost text in Codex Bezae. The full research is forthcoming in New Testament Studies, but you can read about how Elijah found the missing text at the Cambridge special collections blog.Here’s a s... [Codex Bezae] [ink] [water damage]

November 22, 1AM

Crossway has produced a nice video with Pete and Dirk introducing and explaining the new Tyndale House edition of the Greek New Testament. [Tyndale House Greek New Testament] [video clip]

November 21, 5AM

Last night in Boston many of us experienced an eschatological moment, as Holger Strutwolf called it, when he officially launched the digital ECM for Acts. (Perhaps one of my co-bloggers can add a photo.) This is the culmination of much work and means that... [digital humanities] [ECM] [ECM digital edition] [SBL Boston 2017]

November 13, 11AM

Dan Wallace, Larry Hurtado, James Snapp, and Todd Scacewater have all given us their first impressions on the Tyndale House Greek New Testament (THGNT) and since I have now had some time to look over my gratis copy, I thought I would share some of mi... [Tyndale House Greek New Testament]

November 11, 9AM

Romans 16:5 Ἐπαινετὸν τὸν ἀγαπητόν μου not Ἐπαίνετον τὸν ἀγαπητόν μου.03061047571424Matthew 7:10 ἰχθῦν αἰτήσει not ἰχθὺν αἰτήσει (of course this affects the nominative...

November 10, 5PM

In the Greek New Testament, Produced at Tyndale House, Cambridge (THGNT) we made the decision to begin the Parable of the Sower in Mark’s gospel with the second, not the first, word of Jesus’s speech. In Mark 4:3 we have ἀκούετε ‘listen’ ... [Parable of the Sower] [paragraphing] [Tyndale House Greek New Testament]

November 9, 1AM

The SBL has just launched their annual meeting book sale for SBL members, and even our new book, A New Approach to Textual Criticism is included. The discount price is $13.97 for the paperback (-30%) and $24.47 (-40%) for the hardback (I recommend the lat... [A New Approach to Textual Criticism] [Book Sale] [SBL Boston 2017]

November 6, 2AM

The opening line of Mark’s Gospel is of interest for several reasons. One is, of course, the famous variant at the end of 1.1 involving “son of God.” But another is its use of εὐαγγελιον to refer to the narrative of Jesus that follows. Ma... [gospels] [Gospels titles] [Mark 1:1] [paratextual features]

November 3, 5PM

Last year we started a new tradition with an ETC lunch at ETS (Evangelical Theological Society). It was good fun so I thought we should do it again. This is especially for those who can’t attend SBL and our famed annual dinner. It’s a good time to eat... [ETC blog lunch] [ETS 2017]

November 1, 1AM

Today I’m happy to introduce a guest post from Brian J. Wright who is currently an adjunct professor at Palm Beach Atlantic University and New Orleans Baptist Theological Seminary. He has a forthcoming book on communal reading published by For... [ancient publication] [book notes] [Brian J. Wright] [Communal reading]

October 30, 1AM

The Biblical Canon Lists from Early Christianity: Texts and Analysis (OUP) by yours truly and Ed Gallagher releases in the UK this week (see the preview on Google Books here; see Amazon UK here; see Amazon USA here). It will be availab... [Biblical Canon Lists] [book notes] [early christianity] [Ed Gallagher] [John Meade] [OUP]

October 26, 3PM

Your SBL Boston 2017 experience will not be complete without the annual ETC blog dinner, which will take place at 7:30pm Mon 20 Nov at the Hard Rock Café.  Please purchase your ticket online ASAP.  Pre-purchase guarantees group seating, a speci... [ETC blog dinner] [SBL Annual Meeting]

October 24, 11PM

It is now possible to order my and Peter Gurry's introduction to the CBGM from the SBL website or from Amazon.Authors: Tommy Wasserman and Peter J. GurryISBN     9781628371994Status    ForthcomingPrice:     $19... [A New Approach to Textual Criticism] [Book Note] [CBGM] [Peter Gurry] [Tommy Wasserman]

October 23, 8AM

For those of you who have been lying awake all night, lamenting your ignorance of the Coptic language, the solution is at hand.  I will be teaching a two-week intensive introduction to Sahidic Coptic in English 12–24 February 2018 at the Kirchliche... [Coptic]

October 20, 2AM

Over the weekend I managed to read the new book by Candida Moss and Joel Baden called Bible Nation: the United States of Hobby Lobby. The book is an attempt to understand the motivations and actions of the Green family in relation to their plans for ...

12 AM

Over on his blog, Richard Fellows has written up the results of his measurements of the paragraphoi in Vaticanus and plotted them against the measurements of Philip Payne from his recent NTS article. Fellows has linked to his blog in the comments of my la... [Codex Vaticanus] [Distigmai] [Phil Payne] [Richard Fellows]

October 18, 12 AM

Perusal of the LDAB over the past several days has yielded some interesting results in researching the contents of “NT MSS.” In the process, it has become clear that the Nestle-Aland edition and, even the Liste, describe MS contents in an un... [Documentary Evidence] [Greek New Testament Manuscripts] [Kurzgefasste Liste] [P6] [Trismegistos]

October 16, 1AM

We all know Matthew's citation of Hosea 11:1 in Matthew 2:15, 'Out of Egypt I called my son' ἐξ Αἰγύπτου ἐκάλεσα τὸν υἱόν μου.The exact form of the citation is not how you find it in your Septuaginta as edited by Rahlfs,... [Hexapla] [Hosea 11:1] [Matthew 2:15] [Old Testament citations]

October 14, 2AM

Ulrik Sandborg-Petersen  has sent me an announcement:The Robinson-Pierpont Byzantine Textform, along with various resources developed by Maurice A. Robinson, have a new home on the web at website contains freely downloa...

October 13, 11AM

Georgi Parpulov has announced the 7th Lincoln College Summer School of Greek Palaeography.The school is intended for students of Classics, Patristics, Theology, Biblical or Byzantine Studies. Potential applicants are advised that it only offers intro... [Lincoln College] [Summer School] [Summer school of Greek Palaeography]

October 12, 12 AM

My post a few days ago has attracted some attention; most significantly, it has prompted Michael Kruger to respond, which you can read on his own blog here.Before I reply to him, I do want to affirm what Kruger says in his last paragraph: we probably... [apocrypha] [Greek New Testament Manuscripts] [Michael Kruger] [New Testament Canon] [shepherd of hermas]

October 11, 4PM

Ever wondered whether Isaiah should have a rough or smooth breathing? Wonder no more. Mss I consulted were univocal:

October 10, 7AM

cross posted from the blog The Greek New Testament. Post by P.J. Williams.The question of whether to give Abraham a rough or smooth breathing is difficult. Manuscripts differ. We could say that it begins with aleph and that aleph = smooth breathing. The p... [Abraham] [rough breathing] [Tyndale House Greek New Testament]

October 9, 12 AM

In this post, I briefly lay out some of Michael Kruger’s argument for the NT canon from the MSS to evaluate its worth for determining early canonicity of NT books. This is a pilot post, not finished research. I welcome your feedback in the comments.In C... [apocrypha] [Apostolic Fathers] [Greek New Testament Manuscripts] [Michael Kruger] [New Testament Canon]

October 5, 2PM

One of the claims we’re making in the THGNT is that at the time of the New Testament there was a distinction (or at least a partially preserved distinction) between short and long [i], with the latter sometimes represented by ει. In due time we’ll p...

October 4, 12 AM

The Times of Israel has a lengthy article out yesterday on forged Dead Sea Scrolls in the Museum of the Bible collection, the Schøyen collection, and elsewhere. Here are a few snippets, but the whole article is worth reading. One scholar working on ... [Dead Sea Scrolls] [forgery] [Kip Davis] [Museum of the Bible]

October 3, 2AM

For those who like detailed philology, I'd like to highlight the post by the extremely learned Patrick James over at the Greek New Testament, Produced at Tyndale House blog. The brief summary:  print φιλονικία in Luke 22:24 (against al...

October 2, 12 PM

With about 6 weeks to go before the publication of the Greek New Testament, Produced at Tyndale House, Cambridge, we now have the gospel of Mark available for download from Crossway (scroll to bottom for download, or go directly here.)

September 26, 12 AM

The following post is from Paolo Trovato who has been a welcome contributor to the comments the last few months. It can be good to have an outside perspective sometimes and that is what Paolo gives us. For those who need an introduction to his work, see m... [conjectural emendations] [Paolo Trovato]

September 25, 1AM

Last week co-blogger Peter Gurry turned our attention to Philip B. Payne's recent article in New Testament Studies: “Vaticanus Distigme-obelos Symbols Mark Added Text Including 1 Corinthians 14.34–5,” NTS 63 (2017): 604-25. I thought I should commen... [Codex Vaticanus] [P75] [Phil Payne] [punctuation]

September 22, 10AM

Supposed distigmai-obeli in 03In the latest NTS, Philip Payne has published an expanded form of his 2015 ETS paper on Vaticanus and its supposed use of “distigme-obelos” symbols to mark additions in the text. Payne has also summarized his “groundbre... [Codex Vaticanus] [Distigmai] [NTS] [Phil Payne]

September 19, 12 AM

I have written elsewhere on the (in)significance of the codex for determining the boundaries of an ancient’s canon of Scripture. Probably, historical anachronism has occurred, and we have foisted the significance of our modern, printed Bible on to the a... [canon] [Daniel] [Greek MSS] [Syriac MSS]

September 18, 12 AM

In his published dissertation, Eldon Epp was interested in theological tendencies in Acts. In particular, he was interested in theological tendencies in the “Western” text. (From here on, I’ll forgo the quotation marks because they get tedious.) His... [Acts] [ECM] [Eldon J. Epp] [method] [Text Types] [Western Text]

September 14, 10AM

Eb. Nestle’s library (photo credit)Occasionally, one buys a book on Amazon or at a used book store and discovers with delight that it was owned by a famous scholar from times past. When I was at Tyndale I managed to get a copy formerly owned by F. F. Br... [history of textual criticism] [Libraries] [past text-critics]

September 12, 11AM

Back in May a Festschrift was published in honor of James Voelz who has worked across many topics in his career including Mark’s Gospel, Greek grammar, and occasionally matters of text-critical interest. Sometimes the three came together as in his NovT ... [book notes] [Festschrift] [James Voelz]

September 6, 12 AM

While doing some reading tonight on Roman Catholic theology, I rediscovered my copy of Pope Pius XII’s 1943 encyclical Divino afflante Spiritu on the promotion of Biblical studies. There is much of interest in this document, especially in its robus... [Inerrancy] [Pope Pius XII] [theology]

September 4, 7AM

Do text-types exists or not? Tregelles and others thought not, CBGM folk don't like the term either, but most scholars in the 20th century were perfectly fine with it.Martini (1977) surprised me with the following analysis of what text-types are:"(a) A di...

September 1, 7AM

One of our readers, Darrell Post, has made a magnificent update of the Wikipedia articles for the Greek New Testament manuscripts divided into papyri, uncials and minuscules (three parts). These pages promise to be great resources. Papyrihttps://en.wikipe... [GA 2324] [GA 2771] [minuscules] [Papyri] [Uncials] [Wikipedia]

12 AM

At the risk of flaunting my ignorance, I thought it might be worth discussing an interesting textual problem from the OT that I came across tonight. I actually stumbled on this while working on Matthew’s genealogy where Jechoniah is mentioned at the end... [2 Chronicles] [Genealogy] [Matthew 1.11] [Old Testament Textual Criticism]

August 29, 12 PM

Earlier today, Peter Montoro alerted me to a new cache of manuscripts just published by the Library of Congress. Since Peter is more familiar with the contents than me, I asked if he would introduce them for us.In 1949–1950, Kenneth Clark led an expedit... [Digitised Manuscripts] [Kenneth Clark] [Library of Congress] [Mt Athos]

August 27, 11PM

Back in May, Pete Head noted that the ECM Acts would be out soon. It has now been released. This marks another major milestone for the team in Münster. Along with the ECM, of course, there is the CBGM and I am happy to say that the new Genealogical Queri... [Acts] [CBGM] [INTF]

August 25, 1PM

Alessandro Falcetta was my fellow PhD student under David Parker in Bham. His dissertation topic was a biography of James Rendel Harris and it has just come out with Bloomsbury Publishing. This promises to add important information to the history of textu... [book notes] [J. Rendel Haris]

August 23, 11PM

Exciting news out of Birmingham (UK) today. De Gruyter has just published the long-lost fourth century commentary on the Gospels by Fortunatianus of Aquileia. Hugh Houghton explains:The earliest Latin commentary on the Gospels, lost for more than 1,5... [Fortunatianus] [gospels] [Hugh Houghton] [Latin] [Vulgate]


 The sad news has reached me that Tjitze Baarda, a giant of our discipline, has passed away on 19 August at the age of 85. I cite below Jan Krans's announcement on the New Testament Textual Criticism Facebook page: It is my sad duty to inform you all... [tjitze baarda]

August 21, 12 AM

Last week, I wrote about the charge made against reasoned eclectics that they are guilty of praising the large number of NT manuscripts in their apologetic but then not actually using them in their text-critical work. For the details, see here.I had hoped... [Apologetics] [Byzantine Text] [Dan Wallace]

August 17, 5AM

4-6 December 2018, Dirk Jongkind will be holding a masterclass aimed at evangelical leaders and NT teachers with a good knowledge of Greek to introduce them to the Tyndale House GNT as well as deepen their knowledge of the GNT. It will be in the beautiful...

August 16, 12 AM

My post on the topic of the comparative argument for trusting our modern texts of the New Testament produced some good discussion. But one issue that got passed over in the ensuing comments deserves more attention and that is what I want to give it h... [Apologetics] [Dan Wallace] [Maurice Robinson]

August 14, 5AM

In the course of my research on the hexaplaric fragments of Job, I became immersed in its catena tradition. I also became aware that most handbooks and introductions to the Septuagint that mention these MSS did not describe them well, and they usually ass... [Catena MSS] [Manuscripts] [Old Greek Job]


It is common knowledge that, at at several places in the book of Revelation, the main text of our standard Handausgabe (i.e. Nestle-Aland, 28th ed.) follows a singular reading of Codex Alexandrinus (GA 02; LDAB 3481). In principle, this is not inadmi... [Codex Aleandrinus] [Nestle-Aland 28] [Rev 5:9] [Scribal habits] [Tregelles] [Tyndale House Greek New Testament]

August 11, 12 AM

Here is Part 2 of my interview with Paolo Trovato. Read Part 1 here.For someone who isn’t an editor or working on an edition of a text, what do think is the main value of your book for them?Being able to easily detect the typos in a newspaper or a brand... [Interviews] [Italian] [Paolo Trovato] [stemmatics]

August 9, 2PM

Tommy and I are finishing up our introduction to the CBGM right now. It will be jointly published by SBL and the German Bible Society who are hoping to have it out at the SBL annual meeting in November. There are some details for the book over on Amazon. ... [Books] [CBGM] [Poll]

August 7, 11PM

This October, Charles Lee Irons will be speaking at Phoenix Seminary on what Paul meant by the “righteousness of God” (δικαιοσύνη θεοῦ). This was the topic of his book The Righteousness of God: A Lexical Examination of the Covenant... [Charles Lee Irons] [conference presentations] [Lecture] [theology]


One of the advantages of images being available:The NT.VMR transcription of the first words of Jn 18:34 is απεκρινα̣[τ]ο ι̅ς, and the image looks like this (start at the beginning of the first line):There is not much of the alpha present, an... [Jn 18:34] [P66]

August 4, 10PM

Writing in 1947, the Catholic scholar Charles DeVine seems to have foreseen the value of the NT.VMR. The only piece missing from his vision is the internet. No one can anticipate everything, I guess.True, we have critical editions which cite the main codi... [Digitization] [NT.VMR 2.0] [Technology]

12 AM

The July issue of NTS contains an interesting text-critical offering by Aļesja Lavrinoviča: '1 Cor 14.34–5 without ‘in All the Churches of the Saints’: External Evidence'. The abstract goes like this:The present study of the old... [1 Cor 14:34-35] [Aļesja Lavrinoviča] [external evidence] [Reception History] [Scribal habits]

August 1, 11PM

It’s a pleasure for me to introduce our next interviewee in our ETC interviews series. Today I am speaking with Paolo Trovato who is a professor at the Università degli Studi di Ferrara in Italy. Prof. Trovato is best known for his work on Italian... [Interviews] [Italian] [Lachmann] [method] [Paolo Trovato]

July 31, 11AM

Typically, Biblical textual critics have not paid much attention to stemmatics—the study of relational trees—for the simple reason that these methods have never worked for the Old or New Testament on any sizable scale. But that is beginning to change ... [stemmatics]

July 28, 4AM

The latest issue of Novum Testamentum contains two articles of interest:Eldon J. Epp, ‘Text-Critical Witnesses and Methodology for Isolating a Distinctive D-Text in Acts’, pp. 225–96.Abstract:Within the past decade, a few leading New Testa... [apocalypse] [Eldon J. Epp] [Garrick V. Allen] [Novum Testamentum] [Reception History] [Western Text]

July 26, 3PM

When we had to work through the whole of the New Testament in a more systematic way, we started with the Pauline corpus. The assumption was that the letters of Paul did not pose as many problems as some other parts of the NT, and this assumption bore out.... [Gal 3:1] [Gal 4:17] [harmonizations] [Tyndale House Greek New Testament]


Sometimes we need to know the history of our discipline better. In his brief bio of Kirsopp Lake in the Dictionary of Major Biblical Interpreters, J. K. Elliott writes,The link between textual criticism and interpretation was one already made by Lake as e... [Bart Ehrman] [Goal of Textual Criticism] [J. K. Elliott] [Kirsopp Lake]

July 24, 3AM

What follows is not a review. It is a teaser and brief orientation to one of the most comprehensive projects on the text of the Hebrew Bible. Brill’s Textual History of the Bible (THB) is a four volume work in process. Volume 1: The Hebrew Bible co... [Hebrew Bible] [Old Testament Textual Criticism]

July 20, 10AM

Here is a quote I came across today in Kirsopp Lake’s inaugural lecture at the University of Leiden. Note very carefully how Lake argues for the need for conjecture. In the context, he is explaining why he thinks Westcott and Hort failed “spectacularl... [conjectural emendations] [Kirsopp Lake]

July 18, 9AM

NYU’s Ancient World Digital Library has the Corpus of Christian Palestinian Aramaic now online for free. This includes both volumes of the Christian Palestinian Aramaic New Testament Version from the Early Period by Christa Müller-Kessler as well as th... [Christian Palestinian Aramaic] [syriac] [versions]


Good morning from St Paul, where we finally got some rain on our parched gardens,I am re-writing a textbook for beginners on TC of the Bible. The OT part was pretty good, but the NT part needed to be re-done. I’m now in the section that introduces some ... [Papyri] [Text Types]

July 17, 8PM

In the Bulletin of the American Society of Papyrologists, Dan Batovici has a new article arguing against splitting the “B” scribe into two.Abstract: The history of scribal hand identification in Codex Sinaiticus is a fairly complicated one. The m... [Codex Sinaiticus] [Dan Batovici] [scribes]

July 14, 1AM

Elijah Hixson has sent me a YouTube video that has Josh McDowell interviewing Scott Carroll about “First Century Mark.” The video is posted below to which I have added a partial transcript for reference. The video was uploaded on November 15, 2015, bu... [First-century Mark] [Josh McDowell] [Scott Carroll]

July 12, 5PM

Sometime in the spring while my head was still in boxes, BBR published my review of Yii-Jan Lin’s provocatively titled book The Erotic Life of Manuscripts: New Testament Textual Criticism and the Biological Sciences (Oxford, 2016). I must say ... [Book Reviews] [method] [Yii-Jan Lin]

July 10, 3PM

Back in 2012 I posted a brief note about some Christian graffiti in Smyrna that was dated by Roger Bagnall to before AD 125 (and mentioned in R. Bagnall, Everyday Writing in the Graeco-Roman East (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2011, 2012 pb), ... [Bibfeldt] [graffiti] [Roger Bagnall] [Smyrna]


Before the recent news about Hobby Lobby broke, Facebook alerted me to the book by Candida Moss and Joel Baden titled Bible Nation: The United States of Hobby Lobby (Princeton). Amazon lists it as coming in October and Tommy’s post says there will be an... [Book Note] [Green Collection] [Museum of the Bible]

July 7, 4PM

In the latest issue of the Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 60.2 (2017): 283–99, Gregory Goswell has contributed an article entitled “Putting the Book of Chronicles in Its Place.” His “aim is to unsettle any developing consensus... [canon] [Chronicles] [Jets]

July 6, 6AM

Earlier today, the United States filed a civil complaint to forfeit thousands of cuneiform tablets and clay bullae. As alleged in the complaint, these ancient clay artifacts originated in the area of modern-day Iraq and were smuggled into the United State... [Hobby Lobby] [Museum of the Bible]

July 5, 4AM

Congratulations to Kim Phillips, Tyndale House Research Associate, for discovering a manuscript of the Former Prophets by Samuel ben Jacob the scribe of the Leningrad Codex. This should make a significant difference to our understanding of the main manusc... [Kim Phillips] [Leningrad Codex] [Old Testament Textual Criticism] [Tyndale House]

12 AM

University of Michigan Press has a book coming out this year that looks interesting. Discarded, Discovered, Collected: The University of Michigan Papyrus Collection by Arthur Verhoogt is “the first-ever history of Michigan’s celebrated collection of p... [Michigan collection] [University of Michigan]

July 3, 12 AM

In his little book on miracles, C. S. Lewis has a chapter explaining why miracles should not be thought of as breaking the laws of nature. Instead, he says, they should be thought of as God introducing something new to nature which nature then acts on in ... [Bart Ehrman] [C. S. Lewis] [Inspiration] [KJV only] [Preservation] [theology]

June 28, 2PM

In the latest issue of JBL, Armin Baum has a response to Bart Ehrman on pseudepigraphy. In his big book on forgery in early Christian polemics, Ehrman argues not only that pseudepigraphical texts were intended to deceive (and were regarded as such by read... [ancient publication] [Armin Baum] [Authorship] [Bart Ehrman] [pseudepigraphy]

June 26, 12 AM

It’s just over ten years since Bart Ehrman published his bestselling Misquoting Jesus (reviewed here) and almost ten years since Christanity Today called textual criticism one of “the hottest issues in evangelical theology.” In that time, textu... [Apologetics] [Bart Ehrman] [conference presentations] [ETS 2017]

June 21, 12 AM

Some time ago, I posted Hort’s review of Dean Burgon’s defense of Mark 16.9-20. Along with that, and more interesting than the review, was a letter that Hort sent to Westcott about his review and the importance of its timing. Hort tells Westcott that ... [Dean Burgon] [Ending of Mark] [Revised Version]

June 19, 12 AM

I can’t remember where I came across Bruno Chiesa’s work, but I think readers here will at least be interested to know of its existence. The two pertinent volumes I have in mind are titled Filologia storica della Bibbia ebraica or Historical Phil... [Bruno Chiesa] [Hebrew Bible] [Italian] [Textual History of the Bible]

June 16, 6AM

Here is the new website for the Macquarie University/Heidelberg University project led by Malcolm Choat and funded by the Australian Research Council:"Forging Antiquity: Authenticity, forgery and fake papyri" And the related blog Markers of Authenticity Q... [fake] [Forging Antiquity] [hoaxes and forgeries] [Malcolm Choat] [Markers of Authenticity] [Simonides]

June 15, 2AM

Darius Müller announced the latest (and last) volume of the Text und Textwert a few months back. As users of the ECM know, the TuT volumes are used to determine the most important witnesses cited in the ECM and these are then further reduced for citation... [book notes] [ECM] [Revelation] [Text und Textwert]

June 13, 8AM

I should say at the outset that finding errors in NA28 is rewarding because they are so few and far between, and because you are pitting your wits against the best in the business. Finding errors in NA28  is a sport based on a fundamental level of re... [Corrections] [NA28] [NA28 Apparatus] [P46]

June 11, 2PM

Here’s a little anecdote on how John Bunyan once responded to a Cambridge critic about his use of the English Bible:To these years before the Restoration belongs also the story of Bunyan’s encounter on the road near Cambridge with the university man, ... [John Bunyan]

June 9, 1PM

Manuscripts love the heat—and so will youThe Gurry family has just landed in the blazing sun of Phoenix, Arizona where I will be teaching New Testament in the fall. By my count, this means that the number of Biblical text-critics in the city has just do... [news]

June 6, 4AM

"Knowledge of documents should precede final judgement upon readings." Useful though this adage by Westcott and Hort is, it is also a little bit of an open door: lots of things should precede ‘final judgement’ (and when is anything ‘final’ in our ... [Codex Vaticanus] [Romans 1:1] [Tyndale House Greek New Testament]

June 4, 12 AM

The Digital humanities Center at the University of Balamand has just launched “PAVONe”, Platform of the Arabic Versions of the New Testament. Here is the news piece with pictures of the launching event. The Platform contains a huge number of Arabic ma... [Arabic Versions] [PAVONe] [University of Balamand]

May 31, 11AM

After about 3½ years of studying the CBGM, I continue to learn new things about it. Sometimes I discover answers to question I was not even asking. This happened this week while reproducing the textual flow diagrams in my thesis. Because these diagrams c... [CBGM] [textual flow diagrams]

May 30, 2AM

The Editio Critica Maior for Acts appears in the latest German Bible Society catalogue (HT: Greg Paulson on FB). It is due for publication in August 2017. We look forward to this and encourage and congratulate all those involved.There are two main volumes...

May 29, 3AM

A textual apparatus is useful as a quick summary of the evidence at a particular location and also to raise questions as to unexpected manuscript combinations or readings. However, by its very nature, an apparatus presents the evidence in an atomistic way... [Codex Vaticanus] [GA 6] [ligatures] [Tynda House Greek New Testament]

May 23, 4AM

M.D.C. Larsen, 'Accidental Publication, Unfinished Texts and the Traditional Goals of New Testament Textual Criticism' JSNT 39 (2017), 362-387.Abstract:  Notions of ‘authorship’, ‘publication’ and ‘final text’ are often mentioned in tradi...

May 19, 8AM

Life Magazine 26 Dec 1955 featured an article by Alfred Eisenstaedt on Harvard Divintiy School, “Harvard Revival. Back in touch with life of the churches its Divinity School gains a new vigor.” The article includes a curious photo of a group of three ... [computers] [Harvard Mark IV] [Krister Stendahl] [UNIVAC] [Vinton Dearing]

May 17, 7AM

I have been reminded that some time ago I promised to open a discussion on the relationship between inerrancy and textual criticism. This is it. I’ll start with my thoughts and hope that others will contribute theirs as well as explore specific applicat... [conjectural emendations] [Inerrancy] [theology]

May 8, 12 AM

There is a common apologetic argument that says we should be far less skeptical about the text of the NT than we are for the text of other classical works since we have far more and far earlier manuscript evidence for the NT. You can find the basic compar... [Apologetics] [Bart Ehrman]

May 4, 4AM

Lots of ink has been spilled and many pixels been lit up on the question of what we mean when we say 'the text of the New Testament'. Is the only thing we are left with 'texts of the NT', in which every imperfectly copied manuscript constitutes a new and ...

May 2, 8AM

Just a quick post to alert you to the fact that the Library of Congress has put its collection of photographs of manuscripts from St. Catherine's Monastery online. For example, here you will find 1,081 Greek manuscripts (!). Heavenly. (HT: Alin Suciu on F...

May 1, 11AM

P.Oxy. 5258 and 5259 are now P132 and P133. They contain text from Eph 3.21; 4.2, 14-16 and 1 Tim 3.13-4.8 and date to III/IV and III centuries, respectively. The editio princeps for each has been published by Geoffrey Smith and J. Shao and is online here... [1 Timothy] [Ephesians] [Geoff Smith] [Jessica Shao] [New Manuscripts] [Oxyrhynchus Papyri] [P132] [P133]

April 29, 1AM

As part of its new exhibition on the Cairo Genizah, the Cambridge University Library has put together a nice video on the process of conserving this extensive collection of Medieval Hebraica. More info here. [Cairo Genizah] [Cambridge Library Collection]

April 27, 4AM

Where do you start when preparing a Greek New Testament? Of course you can start absolutely from scratch, by typing in each and every letter and accent manually, with all the associated risks, but somehow this did not appeal very much. So we needed an exi... [transcription] [Tregelles] [Tyndale House Greek New Testament]

12 AM

Thanks to Juan Hernandez, news has reached the interwebs that Mike Holmes is retiring from his position at Bethel University. Mike’s work hardly needs an introduction at this blog so I will instead say how much I have appreciated the time Mike has given... [Michael Holmes]

April 25, 12 AM

I’m happy to present another installment of our ETC interview series. Today’s interview is with Thomas W. Hudgins who is Assistant Professor of Biblical and Theological Studies at Capital Seminary and Graduate School. I first spoke with Thomas a ... [Complutensian Polyglot] [Interviews] [Thomas W. Hudgins]

April 20, 5AM

Over at the Tyndale House website, we are now hosting a blog dedicated to the Greek New Testament we have been preparing. This blog will be devoted to that project only, but rest assured, with the exception of the first introductory post, we will cross-po... [introduction] [Tyndale House Greek New Testament]

April 19, 6PM

Christianity Today reports of an attempted attack on the monastery of St. Catherine on Tuesday. ISIS has reportedly claimed responsibility. St. Catherine’s is, of course, the original home of the main part of Codex Sinaiticus and still houses a number o... [St Catherine's Monastery]

April 18, 1AM

(photo credit)Paolo Trovato sends word about his 3rd summer school in textual criticism. I attended part of last year’s school and can say it was a great experience. One of my favorite aspects is that it attracts students who are working on a range of t... [Ferrara] [Paolo Trovato] [Summer School]

April 13, 11PM

The following is another guest post from Elijah Hixson. He is currently writing a PhD thesis at the University of Edinburgh on the NT purple codices about which Jerome famously said, “parchmens are dyed purple, gold is melted into lettering, manuscripts... [Codex Sinopensis] [Digitised Manuscripts] [Elijah Hixson] [O 023] [Purple codices]

April 12, 7AM

Its [textual criticism] reputation for arbitrariness can probably be ascribed to the fact that having grown up in a late stage of the age of printing, we are used to carefully edited texts, and textual corruption strikes us not only as unfamiliar, but als... [method] [quote]

April 6, 7AM

My colleague Kim Phillips has written another fascinating piece about a manuscript in the Cairo Genizah. Read it here


In lieu of our own Peter Head’s failed attempt to review Christian Oxyrhynchus: Texts, Documents, and Sources, I offer this snippet from Zach Cole’s new and helpful review in JETS (60.1):Foremost among this project’s shining virt... [Oxyrhynchus] [Oxyrhynchus Papyri] [Zachary Cole]

April 3, 7AM

One of the 15 fragments. (Photo credit)Owen Jarus, who reported extensively on the Gospel of Jesus’ Wife fragment for Live Science, has an article today about 15 new Dead Sea Scroll fragments recently sold to an undisclosed institution in the U.S. ... [Dead Sea Scrolls] [Hebrew Bible] [New Manuscripts]

April 2, 4AM

Here is part 2 of my series, New Evidence for Earliest Tetraevangelion,  as promised yesterday: [April Fools] [humour]

April 1, 11AM

Seven years ago, I presented a paper on SBL in Atlanta (2010) on "A Comparative Textual Analysis of 𝔓4 and 𝔓64+67"  which was later published in the TC Journal vol. 15 (2010).Background to the paper here.In my last couple of slides I pointed o... [Oldest Tetraevangelion] [Papyrus 4]

March 31, 2AM

This volume offers an overview of Byzantine manuscript illustration, a central branch of Byzantine art and culture. Just like written texts, illustrations bear witness to Byzantine material culture, imperial ideology and religious beliefs, as well as to t... [book notes] [byzantine icons] [illuminations]

March 29, 3AM

Every now and then I see the claim that the two dots that appear in the margin of Vaticanus indicate textual variants known by the original group of scribes. I believe that our own Peter Head agrees that the they may indicate knowledge of textual variatio...

March 24, 2AM

More on Herman Hoskier courtesy of an email from Maurice Robinson. The mustache is quite impressive I must say. Here’s Maurice:I don’t think I can attach photos or the like in reply segments, but you perhaps might want to post these in the main sectio... [Hoskier]

March 23, 6AM

I meant to post about this when it was announced but forgot in the mix of other responsibilities. This looks like an outstanding lineup of speakers and I understand that a conference volume is expected. Paper proposals are open until 15 April. More i... [Conferences] [Garrick V. Allen] [Hoskier]

March 21, 7AM

Hope everyone’s having fun at the Birmingham Colloquium this week. From Hugh Houghton’s tweets, it looks like a great turnout this year. Wish I could be there. Also, can somebody help Elijah Hixson find his pen?Delegates assemble for day 2 of the... [Birmingham colloquium]

March 17, 6AM

If you never had a look at P73, one of the Bodmer papyri, I cannot blame you. Dated to the 7th century, and said to contain ‘text’ from Mt 25:43 and 26:2-3. In all only (traces of) 18 letters are visible according to the INTF transcription, which make...

March 13, 7AM

Here is an interesting detail about the origin of John 7.53-8.11 in the Syriac tradition. Apparently, in the excellent Mingana collection at the University of Birmingham, there is a “handsome and sumptuous” manuscript containing the New Testament and ... [Harklean Syriac] [Mingana collection] [Pericope adulterae] [syriac] [syro-hexpla]

March 9, 10AM

From the latest issue of New Testament Studies, three articles on topics of interest to ETC readers.P45 and the Problem of the ‘Seventy(-two)’:A Case for the Longer Reading in Luke 10.1 and 17Zachary J. Cole  At Luke 10.17, most modern critical e... [Andrew Bernhard] [Gospel of Jesus' Wife] [Luke 10.1] [Mark 1.41] [Nathan Johnson] [NTS] [P45] [Zachary Cole]

March 6, 8AM

Over at his blog, Alex Poulos has posted an interesting translation from Origen’s sermon on Psalm 78 (LXX 77). The issue at hand for Origen involves the first verse: “I shall open my mouth in parables, I shall speak riddles as from the beginning.... [Alex Poulos] [origen] [theology]

March 3, 8AM

In RBL, Jerome Lund reviews Gillian Greenberg and Donald M. Walter, trans. Ezekiel according to the Syriac Peshitta Version with English Translation (Piscataway, NJ: Gorgias, 2015).After two pages of suggested improvements and corrections, he concludes:Ev... [Antioch Bible] [Ezekiel] [Peshitta] [syriac]

February 28, 6AM

I wished I had the time for this (and for using the skills one is taught):Getting your hands dirty with the Digital Manuscripts Toolkit


This has been floating around my Facebook feed the last few days and I thought it was worth sharing here. It's from 1955. Watch it here. [Dead Sea Scrolls] [Qumran] [video clip]

February 24, 7AM

I am currently writing a chapter for an edited volume, where I treat a number of early scribal alterations relating to Christology. The following is an extract of the drafty introduction of one of the examples in John 1:34:One of Bart Ehrman's examples of... [Bart Ehrman] [John 1:34] [Orthodox Corruption] [P106] [P5]

February 16, 2AM

Historical Jesus studies and textual criticism are two subjects that one does not regularly think of together. But recently I was looking over my copy of Anthony Le Donne’s little book Historical Jesus: What Can We Know and How Can We Know It? (201... [Anthony Le Donne] [autographs] [historical Jesus] [Orality]

February 14, 3AM

A brand new website of the International Greek New Testament Project (IGNTP) was launched this morning – the web address is the same complete redesign was done by no other than our talented co-blogger Peter Gurry who is not only a text... [IGNTP] [International Greek New Testament Project] [Peter Gurry] [website]

February 9, 1AM

Yesterday was the 11th International Septuagint Day, see here and here. One of our readers, Brent Niedergall therefore wrote The Septuagint Song together with his music pastor Mac Lynch which he would like to share with the world, so here it is: [LXX] [Septuagint] [Septuagint Day] [Septuagint Song]

February 8, 1AM

From Will Ross and Steve Runge, a conference modeled after the well-done Greek verb conference from a few years back:Students and scholars of Greek have long wrestled with understanding the meaning of prepositions. This challenge is partly the result of t... [Conferences] [Lexicography] [Linguistics] [prepositions] [Tyndale House]

February 6, 5PM

This year’s Houston Baptist University Theology Conference is March 2–4 on the topic “How the Bible Came into Being.”From the website:The Department of Theology at HBU, in conjunction with Lanier Theological Library, is please to host the conferen... [Conferences] [Houston] [Lee Martin McDonald]

February 3, 1AM

The familiar text of Rom 11.6 as read in NA/UBS is found in P46 01* A C D F G P 1739 1881 lat co as follows:εἰ δὲ χάριτι, οὐκέτι ἐξ ἔργων, ἐπεὶ ἡ χάρις οὐκέτι γίνεται χάριςand if by grace, then i... [Byzantine Text] [Codex Vaticanus] [Romans] [Westcott and Hort]

January 31, 1AM

One of the positives of reading a Greek New Testament that lists variants but not the manuscripts that attest them is that it makes you pay more attention to internal evidence. I’ve been reading Scrivener’s edition of Stephanus (1550) which lists diff... [Byzantine Text] [forgiveness] [harmonizations] [parablepsis] [Scrivener] [Synoptic Gospels]

January 25, 1AM

Attendees to last year’s ETS meeting were given nicely bound copies of the new Christian Standard Bible (CSB) translation which releases in March of this year. The CSB is basically a revision of the Holman Christian Standard Bible (HCSB), now without th... [2 Peter 3.10] [Bible Translation] [CSB] [HCSB] [John 1.18]

January 23, 2AM

From Richard Tarrant’s new book Texts, Editors, and Readers: Methods and Problems in Latin Textual Criticism (reviewed in BMCR here):To classify textual criticism as a form of rhetoric is a way of highlighting the fact that its arguments depend on persu... [method] [proof] [quote] [Richard Tarrant]

January 19, 8AM

For the past 50 years, INTF, the institute that produces the NA and now UBS editions, has published “reports” (Berichte) on their text-critical work. I came across these by accident one day at Tyndale House and discovered that they are a treasure trov... [berichte] [INTF]

January 13, 7AM

Word has just reached the Americas of a new form of transit for getting around Britain’s oldest and second greatest university.Media outlets have reported that this new way of traveling is environmentally friendly, inexpensive, and a even a good form of... [Peter Head]
Pete Williams sends word of the following:Call for Papers: HORIZONS IN TEXTUAL CRITICISMConveners: Jan Joosten and John ScrenockOn 10-11 May, 2017, the University of Oxford will host a colloquium devoted to methodologically new and unique work in textual ... [Conferences] [Old Testament Textual Criticism]

January 11, 8AM

The discussion from the post last week on Greg Lanier’s thoughts on the CBGM was helpful I thought. In particular, it made me think again about how best to present the CBGM to those who find themselves mystified and or even frustrated by its c... [CBGM] [Coherence-Based Genealogical Method] [robots]

January 9, 2AM

Here’s a question for our American history buffs. I’ve looked in the usual places online and can’t find anything on this, but maybe some of our readers know. I’m curious as to what Greek NT Thomas Jefferson used to create is famous “Jefferson Bi... [Bible in America] [Editing the Bible] [Thomas Jefferson]

January 3, 6AM

Greg Lanier, a former compatriot at Cambridge, has two recent essays in the journal Reformed Faith & Practice (part 1 and part 2)  doing one of the things he does best: explaining what’s happening in NT scholarship to students and pastors. Here... [CBGM] [Greg Lanier] [theology]

December 30 2016, 2AM

These are the top ten most read posts for the blog in 2016 according to Google Analytics. Not all of these were written in 2016 of course. For last year’s list, see here.BREAKING NEWS: Archaeologists find QTop Ten Essential Works in New Testament Textua... [blog traffic] [ETC blog] [year in review]

December 28, 6PM

I’ve been busy lately with a cross-Atlantic move. So here are some things I’ve come across the last month or so but haven’t been able to blog about. Let me know if I missed anything.ManuscriptsEthiopian Manuscripts donated to Catholic University of ... [news] [TC publications]

December 20, 5AM

Can anyone cite instances where unusual variant readings have affected Christmas carols?More on Christmas variants. [Christmas]

December 16, 3AM

The following caught my interest from the BL blog:"Readers may be surprised to learn that most medieval manuscripts held at the British Library are still in copyright until 2039 under the 1988 Copyright, Designs and Patents Act (as amended). However for u...

December 12, 2PM

One of the things I did while at SBL was sit down with Michael Heiser for an interview on his “Naked Bible podcast.” We talked about what makes the ETC blog Evangelical, some my work with CSNTM, the CBGM, and whether the KJV is the best Bible ever.It ... [Michael Heiser] [podcasts] [SBL]

December 8, 3AM

Over at the Books as a Glance website, our one-time ETC blogger, John Meade, has a detailed review of the new updated edition of Ellis Brotzman’s Old Testament Textual Criticism: A Practical Introduction. John concludes:As an introduction to textua... [John Meade] [Old Testament Textual Criticism] [Septuagint]

December 6, 10AM

Dan Wallace was apparently at Sotheby’s for yesterday’s auction of Charles Ryrie’s amazing Bible collection. Dan reports:Ryrie did not own junk. His printed books were in excellent condition. The selling price reflected this. The very first publishe... [book auction] [charles ryrie] [Sotheby's Auction]

December 5, 3PM

At SBL I enjoyed the session discussing Peter Lampe's book, From Paul to Valentinus: Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries (Fortress Press, 2003) (S19-340: Polis and Ekklesia: Investigations of Urban Christianity).This included interesting ...

December 1, 3PM

Vetus-Latina-Workshop des Graduiertenkollegs am 15.-16.12.2016ProgrammAlle Veranstaltungen finden in den Räumlichkeiten der Kirchlichen Hochschule Wuppertal/Bethel statt (Hörsaal 4 und 5).Donnerstag, 15. 12. 201617.00 UhrEinführung: Die Vetus LatinaTho...


Dead Sea Scrolls in AccordanceOver at the Lying Pen of Scribes blog, Årstein Justnes has posted a list of forged Dead Sea Scrolls that have made their way into modules for Accordance, BibleWorks, and Logos. Among other problems, Årstein p... [accordance] [Bibleworks] [Dead Sea Scrolls] [logos]

November 29, 12 PM

Westcott House in the summerThis morning I spent some time going through a cabinet of material from B. F. Westcott kept at Westcott House in Cambridge (see here for details). Westcott founded the school in 1881 as Cambridge Clergy Training School and it t... [Eberhard Nestle] [Revised Version] [Westcott] [Westcott House]

November 25, 3AM

This is from the last page of GA 720, a 12th century Gospels manuscript digitized by CSNTM. It’s a particularly good example of the difference ultraviolet light can make. [CSNTM] [ultraviolet]

November 22, 4PM

A friend sends this short video from Business Insider and asks, “Is it rubbish?” Since I’m traveling, I thought I would let our astute readers answer for me. Note that it features ETC blog contributor, Bill Warren.How the Bible has changed over the ... [Business Week] [media]

November 19, 1AM

Thanks to all who came out to our first annual ETC at ETS lunch. It was a great success. Alas, there were no speeches, but the food was excellent. Truly a highlight for me so far.Even better though was the session on Wednesday that featured no less than t... [ETS 2016]

November 18, 11AM

Obviously this is too late for anyone wanting to attend, but the Society for the Study of Syriac organizes a “round table” every year and today they are meeting on the topic of the Syriac New Testament. The papers should be published in the accompanyi... [Conferences] [syriac]

November 12, 5PM

The main text of the Greek New Testament produced at Tyndale House, whose principal editor is Dirk Jongkind is now complete except for peer review and some minor spelling adjustments. I thought it might be of interest to provide a preview of Luke 15 in th...

November 11, 6AM

Volume 21 (2016) of TC: A Journal of Biblical Textual Criticism is now complete (the whole issue is here).Two new articles and five new reviews have just been added. As one of the editors I must say that we are very happy with the development of the journ... [articles and reviews] [early versions] [Georg Gäbel] [Katie Marcar] [Old Testament citations] [TC Journal]

November 10, 9AM

Next week is the annual ETS and SBL conferences in San Antonio. If you have never been to the annual ETC blog dinner at SBL, this is your year to come. I think you’ll find that folks are welcoming and friendly. It’s a great time.GloryBut I also k... [ETC blog lunch] [ETS 2016]

November 9, 3AM

In 1858, Hort reviewed the latest editions of both Tischendorf and Tregelles. He was much more positive about the latter than the former. In closing, he says this about Tischendorf:Both editors in fact deserve the praise of conscientiousness in their actu... [Book Reviews] [Hort] [Tischendorf] [Tregelles]

November 4, 3AM

This is now a few days late for Reformation Day, but Ronald Hendel, editor-in-chief of the Hebrew Bible: Critical Edition (HBCE), has just put an article online that should be of particular interest to ETC readers. The essay looks at the relationship betw... [Inerrancy] [Reformation] [Ronald S. Hendel] [theology]

October 31, 7AM

The 5th–7th century correction (“Ca”) in SinaiticusLast night while reading Ephesians, I came across a variant I don’t remember seeing before. I was surprised that it wasn’t adopted as the main text since it seemed like the obvious choice. I sho... [Ephesians 5:30] [parablepsis]

October 27, 3AM

In 1871, F. J. A. Hort wrote a short review of Dean Burgon’s well-known defense of the longer ending of Mark in The Last Twelve Verses of St. Mark. The review itself isn’t especially noteworthy. Hort found himself unconvinced and unimpressed by B... [Book Reviews] [Dean Burgon] [Ending of Mark] [Hort]

October 26, 9AM

People sometimes wonder whether 'The New Testament' is a New Testament concept. I'd be interested to hear your thoughts in the comments. But I've been musing on this.The basic shape of the New Testament as a Trinitarian text oriented around the Gospel of ...

October 24, 2AM

Two of the most significant English translations as far as the text of the New Testament is concerned are the Authorized or King James Version of 1611 and its revision, the Revised Version, published in 1881 (NT; OT in 1885).The KJV is obviously significa... [King James Bible] [Revised Version] [Scrivener]

October 20, 4AM

Westcott’s words to to clergy-in-training from his Lessons from Work (1901):2. The study [of the Bible] must be systematic, and again it must be thorough. Even the external history of the Sacred books illustrates the action of the Spirit in the Christia... [Westcott]

October 18, 12 PM

NEW YORK, 6 October 2016—Sotheby’s is honored to announce the sale of one of the greatest private collections of printed and manuscript Bibles formed since the 19th century, The Bible Collection of Dr. Charles Caldwell Ryrie, which will be held in ...

October 14, 2AM

The first volume of a new series on Digital Biblical Studies has just appeared from Brill. It’s edited by Claire Clivaz, Paul Dilley and David Hamidović. Table of contents is here.I’ve only looked at the chapters that piqued my interest.The... [Digital Biblical Studies] [digital humanities]
The first volume of a new series on Digital Biblical Studies has just appeared from Brill. It’s edited by Claire Clivaz, Paul Dilley and David Hamidović. Table of contents is here.I’ve only looked at the chapters that piqued my interest.The... [Digital Biblical Studies] [digital humanities]

October 10, 1AM

Many New Testament scholars consider Mark 16.8 to be the original ending of the gospel. Others regard the original ending as now lost. For those who think it’s lost, the most frequent explanation is that it was lost at some point given that the beginnin... [Dan Wallace] [Ending of Mark] [F. G. Kenyon] [F. W. Hall] [Mark 16:8] [scroll]

October 7, 9AM

I spent the morning today looking through some of the minutes and papers from the revisers of the English Bible (i.e., the Revised Version). Unfortunately, I didn’t get to the minutes on the New Testament. But I did come across some interesting collater... [King James Bible] [Revised Version]

October 5, 7AM

That's right folks.  It's that time again.  Peter Williams has begun writing his speech.  We have a reservation at the Hard Rock.  The biggest event of the text-critical year approaches -- the ETC Blog dinner at SBL.  Everyone's i... [ETC blog dinner] [SBL] [SBL San Antonio 2016]

September 30, 8AM

Nowadays students are routinely informed that there's only one accent which matters in Greek: τίς, τί and related forms  mean 'who' and 'what', while τις, τι etc. mean 'a certain'.That's probably true as far as the texts which modern stud...


After announcing last month that they were not going to make any more changes to the ESV ever, Crossway publishers has reversed their decision. The original post has been removed, but it contained some very odd language about the new text being a “perma... [Bible Translation] [ESV]


Roberta Mazza, 'Papyri, Ethics, and Economics: A Biography of P.Oxy. 15.1780 (P 39)', Bulletin of the American Society of Papyrologysts, 52 (2015), 113-142.Abstract: Discussion of the retrieval, distribution, and sale of P.Oxy. 15.1780, a fragment of the ...

September 29, 7AM

Mike Holmes sends this note for readers of the blog:In the preface to the NRSV, the Committee states that the NRSV is based on UBS3, and that “Only in very rare instances have we replaced the text ... by an alternative.” I know of two, at Luke 11:33 a... [NRSV] [UBS GNT]

September 27, 2AM

When Hoskier in his Concerning the Text of the Apocalypse talks about Spirit testimony, he means something different from what Peter Gurry was talking about (here).The following is taken from page xxxviii in Hoskier: [Hoskier] [Revelation 21:4] [spiritism]

September 26, 5AM

We all know that the revisions to the Catholic Epistles were printed in the NA28 and that the revisions for Acts, John, and Revelation are underway as I write. But how long will it take to have a completely revised edition of Nestle? Writing in 2000, here... [ECM] [INTF] [Nestle-Aland 28] [University of Birmingham] [Wuppertal]

September 23, 4AM

Over on τον βιβλιον του προσοπου, Jan Krans announces the public arrival of the Amsterdam Database of New Testament Conjectural Emendation. It has now been added to the NT.VMR. This is a fantastic resource many years in the makin... [Amsterdam Database of New Testament Conjectural Emendation] [conjectural emendations] [Jan Krans]

September 21, 5AM

Roughly the number of books J. K. Elliott reviews in a year.Here is a list of what is reviewed in the latest issue of Novum Testamentum with some snippets that caught my eye. All but one of these are reviewed by J. K. Elliott with his characteristic flare... [Book Reviews] [Eldon J. Epp] [Novum Testamentum]

September 12, 1AM

The Reformed tradition has long held that one of the means by which Christians are convinced of Scripture’s divine origin is through the internal testimony of the Holy Spirit. This work of the Holy Spirit is essentially one in which he removes the blind... [canon] [john owen] [Mike Kruger] [Scripture's Self-authentication] [theology]

September 9, 1AM

Just to show that some of us are not the only ones procrastinating about the absence or presence of a single letter.“That’s one small step for a man, one giant leap for mankind.”Read here

September 8, 1AM

Last week Troy Griffitts was in town and he showed me how to make a custom VMR. In the meantime he’s helped me do some extra editing as well and the result is that I’ve put together my own public version of the VMR. You can use it at ntvmr.uni-mu... [NT.VMR 2.0] [Troy Griffitts] [VMR]

September 7, 2AM

It’s not uncommon today to read criticisms of past textual scholars for their overconfidence. First among the guilty in this regard is often Westcott and Hort who titled their edition The New Testament in the Original Greek. So, for example, Eldon Epp r... [Edward A. Hutton] [Eldon J. Epp] [Textual Optimism] [Westcott and Hort]

September 6, 2PM

Happy first day to Pete Head who starts his new post today! When I left his new office yesterday it was... still a bit of a mess. But I have every confidence that at some point this week it will be neat and tidy. (How long that lasts I will not predi... [Peter Head]

September 5, 1AM

Three new articles appear in the open access journal BABELAO (Bulletin de l’Académie Belge pour l’Etude des Langues Anciennes et Orientales):Toan Do, 'Εἰδῆτε, ἴδητε, οἴδατε, and Scribal Activities in 1 John 2:29a' (p. 77-104)J.-L...

September 1, 6AM

Act of the Scribe: Interfaces between scribal work and language use. A WorkshopDate: April 6–8, 2017 (+ excursion on Sunday, April 9, to be informed later)Venue: The Finnish Institute at Athens (Zitrou 16, GR-117 42 Athens)Finnish InstituteThe project A... [Conferences]

August 31, 2AM

My colleague Kim Phillips has written a post on the ‘fragment of the month(?!)’ blog on a fascinating fragment in the Genizah. He has stacked his post with interesting things to know. Find the post here. [Cairo Geniza] [Hebrew Bible] [Kim Phillips] [Masora]

August 30, 6AM

Jean-Louis Simonet sends word that he has published a critical review of Curt Niccum's book, The Bible in Ethiopia. The Book of Acts (2014) in J-L. Simonet, 'Le livre des Actes dans la Bible éthiopienne. A propos d’un livre récent' BABELAO 5 ...

August 29, 2AM

The latest issue of Digital Scholarship in the Humanities (31.3) has a special section of stemmatics. I would particularly recommend the essays by Barbara Bordalejo and Peter Robinson which were mentioned on the blog here. All of these appear to be f... [Barbara Bordalejo] [Digital Scholarship in the Humanities] [Peter Robinson] [stemmatics]

August 25, 6AM

Jim West notes a new series on the texts and versions of the Old Testament edited by Jim Aitken:Announcing a new sub-series of LHBOTS: Texts and Versions of the Hebrew BibleTexts and Versions of the Hebrew Bible will publish high level studies on the... [Jim Aitken] [LHBOTS] [Old Testament Textual Criticism]

August 22, 2AM

On 14-16 September I will participate in a conference at the University of Agder in Kristiansand (Norway), Fragments of an Unbelievable Past? Constructions of Provenance, Narratives of Forgery – conference schedule below (not including coffee and meals)... [Ariel Sabar] [Constantine Simonides] [Gospel of Jesus' Wife] [hoaxes and forgeries] [Provenance] [Walter Fritz]

August 15, 3AM

E. C. Colwell (source)Westcott and Hort and E. C. Colwell are often connected in discussions of singular readings as they should be. But it’s not often appreciated how Colwell inverted WH’s primary purpose for studying singular readings. For... [E.C. Colwell] [Singular Readings] [Westcott and Hort]

August 10, 1AM

A week or so ago my carrel-mate here at Tyndale was stumped for who knows how long by a Gothic letter “C” that looked a whole lot like Gothic letter “T” for “targum.”What finally gave it away was the superscript “Sa” which I thought had to... [apparatus] [Gothic] [Sigla]

August 9, 2AM

Pete Williams sent word yesterday that the first volume of the Publications of Museum of the Bible was published this week. Dead Sea Scrolls Fragments in the Museum Collection is edited by Emanuel Tov, Kipp Davis, and Robert Duke and features 13... [Dead Sea Scrolls] [Green Scholars Initiative] [Museum of the Bible] [Publications of the Museum of the Bible]

August 5, 5AM

While doing some sermon prep last week I came across some interesting variants in Rev. 2.13. The NA28 reads:οἶδα ποῦ κατοικεῖς, ὅπου ὁ θρόνος τοῦ σατανᾶ, καὶ κρατεῖς τὸ ὄνομά μου καὶ ... [Harklean Syriac] [Rev 2.13] [Revelation] [syriac]

August 4, 5AM

This is from Aland’s 1970 article “Novi Testamenti Graeci Editio Maior Critica: Der gegenwärtige Stand der Arbeit an einer neuen grossen kritischen Ausgabe des Neuen Testamentes,” NTS 16 (1970): 163–77 which layed out the rationale for ... [ECM] [Editorial Committee] [Kurt Aland]

August 3, 1AM

The study of those manuscripts that contain the text of all of the Greek Scriptures is still relatively underdeveloped. There are still plenty of questions to be asked about the Greek pandects of the 4th (Vaticanus, Sinaiticus) and 5th centuries (Alexandr... [abschrift] [Codex Vaticanus] [GA 205] [GA 2886]

August 2, 3AM

A couple of new books I am looking forward to reading at some point:Alan Mugridge, Copying Early Christian Texts: A Study of Scribal Practice (WUNT 362; Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2016).Blurb: It is widely believed that the early Christians copied thei... [book notes]

August 1, 1AM

International SBL finished a few weeks ago in Seoul, South Korea. I did not go, but Jacob Peterson did and he has kindly agreed to summarize the text critical papers he attended for us. Thanks, Jacob.Yonsei UniversityThe International Society of Biblical ... [ISBL Seoul 2016]

July 29, 2AM

I could use some help.Here is minuscule 1424 at 1 Pet 4:11, located on the CSNTM website as GA_1424_0213b.jpg. [I haven't found a way to navigate the CSNTM without wanting to end my life, but the image is roughly 60% down, two pages before 2Pt] My gripe i...

July 27, 9PM

The Sociology, Anthropology, Psychology and Egyptology Department (SAPE) is seeking a specialist in Coptic Studies (Coptology). Candidates must be able to teach the Coptic language and must also offer at least one other specialty from among the following:...


Looking at the variation in 1 Cor 3:5 I notice that NA28 lists P46 in support of the first τις as P46vid (from videtur), that is, it is the 'apparent reading, but not certain'.So how much of τις should be visible in order to warrant this citation?Th...

July 21, 2AM

Good news! Jean-Baptiste Piggin has discovered that, without any fanfare, the Vatican has just posted color images of both P72 and P75 on its website. Until now the only images I knew of were black and white images on CSNTM and the NT.VMR. At th... [manuscript images] [P75] [Vatican Library]

July 14, 1AM

The Editio Critica Maior defines a “variant” as a reading that is both “grammatically correct and logically possible.” If it doesn’t meet these two criteria it is marked with an f for Fehler (= error). Neither criteria i... [ECM] [GA 1563] [james] [Klaus Wachtel]

July 11, 4AM

I’ve just returned from a week in Ferrara, Italy presenting on the CBGM. It was a great time despite the heat. While there I had the chance to look at Ferrara’s complete collection of Greek New Testament manuscripts. Okay, it’s only two, but one of ... [GA 582] [Mark 1:1] [Peter Head] [Tommy Wasserman]

July 8, 10AM

Here is a good word from Bengel for your weekend.Human selections of sayings and examples, taken from Scripture, have their use; the study, however, of the Sacred Volume, should not end here; for it should, both as a whole, and in its several parts, be th... [J A Bengel] [quote]

July 6, 2AM

The following is a guest post from Elijah Hixson. Elijah is currently writing his doctoral thesis on Codex Rossanensis and two other purple codices at the University of Edinburgh under the supervision of Paul Foster. When I saw last week that Rossenansis ... [Codex Rossanensis] [Elijah Hixson] [GA 022] [Purple codices]

July 1, 5AM

A reader of the blog reminds me that the International SBL meeting starts next week in Seoul, South Korea. There are two text critical sections in the line up.Greek New Testament Manuscripts Pasi Hyytiäinen, University of Helsinki Textual Evolution ... [ISBL Seoul 2016]

June 27, 1AM

Acts 1 in Bezae. (Photo)It’s frequently reported that the text of Acts is longer in the Western text than in the Alexandrian. But just how much longer is it? The most commonly cited number is 8.5%. You’ll find this in Metzger’s Textual Commentary (p... [Acts] [Alexandrian text] [Codex Bezae] [logos] [Western Text]

June 25, 4AM

A couple links for your weekend reading.Timothy Mitchell whose blog I mentioned earlier has a fresh article in JETS on just what we mean by “autograph” in debates about inerrancy. He concludes that “in reference to the NT, the ‘autograph,’ as of... [autographs] [Ending of Mark] [Inerrancy] [James Snapp] [Jets] [Pericope adulterae] [theology]

June 22, 3AM

(photo credit)The latest issue of Vetus Testamentum has an article by Klaas A. Worp on a new 4th century copy of Psalm 9.22–26. The abstract:First edition of a Psalm fragment on a Greek papyrus coming from a settlement in the Western desert of... [Old Testament Textual Criticism] [OT Papyrus] [Papyrus] [Psalm 9]

June 16, 12 PM

Peter Gentry has just blogged on Ariel Sabar's Atlantic article on Walter Fritz.  Apparently, Fritz admitted in writing that he is the owner of the Gospel of Jesus Wife papyrus.  Among other revelations, the article contends that Fritz:studied e...


Walter Fritz, owner of the GJW (photo credit).Wow. The most recent issue of The Atlantic has an incredible story uncovering the formerly anonymous owner of the Gospel of Jesus’ Wife papyrus. His name is Walter Fritz, a German-born man who... [forgery] [Gospel of Jesus' Wife] [Karen L. King] [Walter Fritz]

June 9, 2AM

Besides the world-famous ETC blog, there are a number of other blogs that cover textual criticism. I’ve added these to the list of Biblioblogs in the sidebar so they should come up there whenever there’s a new post. They’re worth a read.1. The ... [biblioblog]

June 6, 4AM

12th c. binding material in a 16th c. manuscript (photo credit).The Guardian reported this weekend on a relatively new technique for reading metallic inks in book bindings macro x-ray fluorescence spectrometry (MA-XRF). Here’s a clip from the artic... [book binding] [Head's Rule] [Technology] [X-ray]

June 4, 5AM

Should we be concerned about the new emoji Bible?  Yes, very concerned, I think.  Read the whole story, here:Steven Lawson, "Portrait Of William Tyndale Begins Crying Blood After Release Of ‘Emoji Bible" The Babylon Bee, 2 June 2016.

June 2, 5AM

Here’s something that two otherwise competing methods of New Testament textual criticism agree on, at least according to their two main proponents. Both reasoned eclecticism and the Byzantine priority position have in common that external evidence shoul... [Byzantine priority] [Maurice Robinson] [method] [Michael Holmes] [reasoned eclecticism]

May 27, 2AM

My friend Alison Schofield reports that she will be joining a new excavation that is now taking place in a remote Dead Sea cave after a previously-unknown papyrus manuscript was found there by plunderers in 2014 (more here).The Israel Antiquities Authori... [Alison Schofield] [Archaeology] [Cave of Sculls] [Dead Sea Scrolls] [Excavation] [Israel Antiquities Authority] [plundering]

12 AM

Tregelles’s 1549 Stephanus GNTDallas Theological Seminary’s Turpin Library owns a copy of Robert Stephanus’s 1549 Greek New Testament that was once own by Samuel P. Tregelles and was then given, by his wife, to B. F. Westcott. Stephanus, of course, ... [Dallas Seminary] [Dwight Pentecost] [Tregelles] [Turpin Library] [Westcott]

May 23, 3AM

From John Lee’s translation (emphasis added):John 1.1-14. Note the dot under the superscript ‘c’ before εγεννηθησαν in the second line from the bottom.So that you may not be surprised, diligent scholar, or be displeased with us that in th... [accents] [Complutensian Polyglot] [Greek New Testament editions] [polyglots] [theology]

May 19, 7AM

Of interest to those readers forced to live in Oxford.The Oxford University Society of Bibliophiles is pleased to welcome Marc Polonsky, trustee of the Polonsky Foundation, who will deliver a talk on the ‘Digitisation of Cultural Heritage’.Tuesday 24t... [Lecture] [Oxford] [Polansky]

May 18, 1AM

Robert Stephens’s 1551 edition was the first to add verses to the NT.A few days ago I stumbled across a case of differing versification. If you check your NA or SBLGNT, you’ll find that the phrase Γράφω ὑμῖν, παιδία, ὅτι ἐγνώ... [1 John 2.13-14] [Abbott] [Beza] [Stephanus] [Verse numbering]

May 16, 11AM

Has anybody seen this? Currently, it has 30% on Rotten Tomatoes. Here is the promo:Hired by an ambitious small-town pastor to find sacred relics in the Holy Land, a self-proclaimed Biblical archaeologist comes up short and his attempt to cover up his fail...

May 12, 1AM

Today marks the 135th anniversary of the publication of Westcott and Hort’s momentous edition The New Testament in the Original Greek. The date was May 12, 1881 (see FB discussion here). Later in the same year they would publish their introduc... [Westcott and Hort]

May 10, 3AM

Greek students sometimes get the wrong impression that their Nestle-Aland apparatus records all the variants for the New Testament. I certainly thought this at one point. And it’s not just students. I once heard a story about one of Kurt Aland’s colle... [ECM] [John 18] [Jude] [NA28 Apparatus] [number of variants] [Philemon] [statistics] [UBS GNT]

May 9, 12 PM

I am really impressed with my eight Indiana Wesleyan University John Wesley Honors College students who created the documentary below as part of their HNR 325 Honors Research Tutorial class.  I prefer to call it Honors Research Supervision, but that'...

May 6, 2AM

So far as I know, no one has written more trying to tease out what exactly the term Ausgangstext (translated as “initial text”) than Eldon Epp has in his essay for J.K. Elliott’s Festschrift.There (p. 54) he suggests that the earliest official ... [ECM] [Eldon J. Epp] [Gerd Mink] [initial text]

May 5, 4AM

Princeton Seminary has put their old journals online. These go back to 1825 with the Biblical Repertory. There are plenty of essays from the bright lights of Old Princeton. Among the articles is Warfield’s 32-page (!) review of Westcott and Hort’s GNT... [B. B. Warfield] [Book Reviews] [Westcott and Hort]

May 2, 3AM

For some, the question of whether Mark 16.9–20 belongs to the original text of Mark’s Gospel settles the matter of whether it should be read, preached, and taught as Scripture. For others it’s not so simple. These 12 verses may have been added, but ... [Ending of Mark] [Inspiration] [Mark 16:8] [Poll] [Tregelles]

April 27, 9AM

The question is sometimes asked as to why the Gospel tradition was ever written down in the first place. Writing may have obvious advantages to those of us who live in Gutenberg’s world, but some contend that those living in largely illiterate cultures ... [Chris Keith] [gospels]

April 26, 5AM

Research Projects Coordinator Beginning 01 August 2016, the research projects coordinator of the Scholars Initiative, located in Oklahoma City, OK, will coordinate with the executive and associate director to plan, implement and support collaborative... [job opening] [Museum of the Bible]

April 22, 2AM

The BL has just put up a new website for their digitized Hebrew manuscripts (mentioned here). You can now filter by Hebrew Bible manuscripts. There are 13 in all, seven of which are scrolls. There are some short articles on the new site as well that are w... [British Library] [Hebrew Manuscripts] [Micrography]

April 16, 8AM

Competition for awards to be given at the Eleventh International Congress of Coptic Studies, to be held in Claremont, California (U.S.A.), 25–30 July 2016. The International Association of Coptic Studies will award two prizes, one for the best M.A. thes...

April 15, 11AM

Finally, the book from the Pericope of the Adulteress Symposium is out (see here), and I am happy to have contributed with a chapter, "The Strange Case of the Missing Adulteress." This is an expensive book, but a more affordable paperbook will be publishe... [Book Note] [Chris Keith] [Jennifer Knust] [Maurice Robinson] [Pericope adulterae]

April 13, 1AM

Ostraca from Arad dating ca. 600 B.C. (source)There’s currently a story making the rounds on the major news sites (NY Times, Guardian, etc.). The headlines are, as headlines often are, “exciting”:“New Evidence on When Bible Was Written: Ancient Sh... [Arad] [Dating] [Handwriting] [news] [ostraca]

April 12, 1AM

It is a good time to be a student of American religious history and especially American Evangelicalism. Historians like George Marsden, Mark Noll, Nathan Hatch and others continue to write incisively on the subject even as a younger generation follows in ... [American Bible Society] [Bible] [Bible in America] [Douglas Sweeney] [John Fea] [Jonathan Edwards] [Mark Noll]

April 11, 1AM

Ferrera Castello (photo credit)This summer the Department of Humanities at the University of Ferrara (Italy) will again be offering an eight day summer school on textual criticism. Attendance is capped at 14 which means there should be plenty of personal ... [Ferrara] [Paolo Trovato] [Summer School]

April 8, 12 AM

I received this email from Armin Yavari (Assistant Director of 'The Islamic Manuscript Association') and thought this course may be of interest to some of our readers:The Islamic Manuscript Association, in cooperation with Cambridge University Library and... [Islam]

April 6, 2AM

A. Papathomas, 'Ezechiel 12, 16–19 und 23–25 in einem griechischen Pergament aus Ägypten' Tyche 30 (2015), 91-98 (and taf. 14)An interesting little parchment fragment (5.4 x 4.8 cm) of Ezekiel, which is (acc. Papathomas) comparatively not very we... [Ezekiel] [Papathomas] [parchment] [Vienna]

April 5, 2AM

Workers restore the scene “original sin”in the Sistine Chapel (photo credit)What makes it wrong to alter a great painting but not a great manuscript? I think many of us instinctively know there’s a difference but would not be able to articulate what... [G. Thomas Tanselle] [Goal of Textual Criticism] [method]

April 2, 5AM

In the new issue of Novum Testamentum 58.2 (2016), one article and one review has been published:Peter Malik, "Another Look at P.IFAO II 31 (𝔓98)" (pp.: 204–217)Tommy Wasserman, Review of Texts and Traditions. Essays in Honour of J. Keith Elliott, ed... [articles and reviews] [Novum Testamentum] [TC Journal]

March 31, 2PM

This is one of the most phenomenal discoveries of the century. I am still in a state of shock and nashing my teeth for previously entertaining doubts about Q. For full details of the discovery follow the link to the original article. I give the openi...

March 29, 1AM

Over at the Volos Acadamy for Theological Studies website there is a report on a recent conference in Athens on NTTC.On February, 22 2016, an International Conference was successfully held at the central building of Athens University (“Al. Argyriad... [Conferences] [David Trobisch] [Editorial Committee] [Florian Voss] [Holger Strutwolf] [International Conference for the New Testament Textual Criticism] [Klaus Wachtel] [Simon Crisp]

March 28, 2AM

In response to the notion that the use of internal evidence is more subjective than external and therefore less reliable, Mike Holmes says this:The claim that some methods are more “objective” than others—in particular, the view that decisions based... [Michael Holmes] [quote]

March 23, 3AM

This is part 2 of our interview with Chuck Hill. Part 1 is here.In The Early Text of the NT, you suggest that David Parker “gives the impression that concern for the original text is simply a religious phenomenon, driven by pressure from churches w... [canon] [Charles Hill] [Inerrancy] [Interviews] [original text] [The Early Text of the NT]

March 21, 4AM

In 1973, Eldon J. Epp held a lecture on what he regarded as the “Twentieth Century Interlude in New Testament Textual Criticism” (published in JBL 93 [1974]: 386–414). He suggested that there had been an interlude ever since the golden era of the 19... [Birmingham colloquium] [Conferences] [EABS] [Meetings] [new testament textual criticism] [SBL Annual Meeting] [SBL International Meeting] [SNTS]

March 18, 10AM

Today I received my copy of a new book: D.A. Carson (ed.), The Enduring Authority of the Christian Scriptures (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2016). It is quite a big book (36 chapters and 1,240 pages), so this is not a review, more of an initial reaction and re...

March 16, 10AM

I just read an interesting article by Bonifatius Fischer on the use of computers in New Testament studies. What makes it interesting is that it was written in 1970. Here are a couple of points that stood out to me. I especially liked this quote near the b... [computers] [journal of theological studies] [Stephen Carlson]

March 11, 2AM

Just a note to those in or near Cambridge that Codex Bezae is said to go on display today at the University Library.Probably not the page they’ll put on display.I was there a few days ago and saw them setting up, but the displays themselves were off lim... [Cambridge Library Collection] [Codex Bezae] [Gutenberg Bible] [Nash Papyrus]

March 10, 2AM

I am pleased to introduce our next interviewee in our ETC interviews series. Dr. Charles E. Hill completed his PhD on eschatology in the early Church at the University of Cambridge under Lord Rowan Williams of Oystermouth (yes, they still use such fantast... [canon] [Charles Hill] [Interviews] [The Early Text of the NT]
The European Association of Biblical Studies now has a research group focused on fostering cross-disciplinary conversation on the textual criticism of NT, OT and Qur'an. The programme from the website is pasted below. For more details go here.ProgrammeThi...

March 9, 2AM

Add. MS 9401 f. 3r. Genesis. Dated 1588.Yesterday the British Library announced that more Hebrew manuscripts have now been digitized.Our followers and readers will be delighted to learn that over 760 Hebrew manuscripts have now been uploaded to the B... [British Library] [Digitised Manuscripts] [Hebrew Bible] [Hebrew Manuscripts]

March 4, 1PM

This Summer the Antwerp University Summer School: Book and Culture – Religious Manuscripts, Hand Press Books and Prints (15th–19th centuries): Collections, Materials and Methodologies – will take place on 27 June – 1 July at the Ruusbroec Institut... [Summer School]


Sorry for the late notice, but some readers may well be interested in this conference: Please find below the programme for the Monastic Economies in Egypt and Palestineconference, which will take place in Oxford 16th-17th March, 2016. Attendance at the ev...

March 3, 2AM

March 2, 2AM

An email from the librarian at Corpus Christi, Oxford informs me of a new catalogue which includes seven Biblical Hebrew manuscripts:Corpus Library and Archives are delighted to announce the publication of A descriptive catalogue of the Hebrew Manuscripts... [Corpus Christi (Oxford)] [Hebrew Manuscripts] [manuscript catalogue] [Oxford]

February 29, 4AM

Neil Bach, Leon Morris: One Man's Fight for Love and Truth (Milton Keynes: Paternoster/Authentic, 2015). Neil Bach has written a very informative biography of Leon Morris, with a fascinating photograph on the front cover, which I read over the weekend. Of... [Atonement] [Australia] [book notes] [Leon Morris] [Neil Bach] [Ridley College]

February 27, 11AM

Course DescriptionSeptuagint Studies is a burgeoning field of research that has seen the recent publication of modern language translations, lexica, monographs and series on a wide range of topics. Two major projects that are currently underway are the So...

February 23, 12 AM

Recently a student of mine came across this subscription to 1 Timothy in Greg.-Aland 1977 (Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana ms. laur. Plut. 10.9):I interpreted the two final lines as:+ εγραφη απο λαοδικειας ητις εστιν μετρο... [Byzantine palaeography] [monocondyle] [subscriptions]

February 21, 7AM

Hans Förster (University of Vienna) has published a fascinating article in ZNW on a supposedly incomplete sentence in John's gospel, demonstrating how a scholar can integrate philology and textual criticism in a number of useful ways (manuscripts, commen...

February 18, 2AM

To celebrate the release of his book next week, Oxford University Press has kindly agreed to give away a copy of Hugh Houghton’s The Latin New Testament: A Guide to its Early History, Texts, and Manuscripts.You can enter to win in any of the ways l... [givewaway] [Hugh Houghton] [Latin]
It is a real pleasure to continue our ETC Blog interview series with someone who is no stranger to our regular readers. Dr. Hugh Houghton is Reader in New Testament Textual Scholarship at the University of Birmingham (UK) and Deputy Director of the Instit... [Hugh Houghton] [Interviews] [Latin] [University of Birmingham] [Vetus Latina Iohannes]

February 17, 1AM

This is the second part of my interview with Hugh Houghton. Part 1 is here.You work at the Institute for Textual Scholarship and Electronic Editing (ITSEE) where “computer methods are now fundamental to every stage of the editorial process.” The emerg... [COMPAUL] [Frozen] [Hugh Houghton] [Interviews] [ITSEE] [University of Birmingham]

February 16, 12 PM

Here’s a video by the BBC on the production of vellum today in England. It is important as it is the form in which the main laws are recorded in the UK.Video [BBC]

February 15, 12 PM

Mentioned earlier on the blog, HBU’s annual theology conference is happening next weekend. There are lots of text critical papers given this year’s theme of “Erasmus’ Bible and the Impact of Scripture.” If you’re in the area, don’t miss it. ... [Conferences] [Erasmus] [Houston]

February 12, 8AM

I’m not sure if they still count as blog contributors, but later today Mike Bird and Simon Gathercole will be participating in the annual Greer-Heard Point-Counterpoint Forum. The topic this year is “How Did Jesus Become God?” with other participant... [Bart Ehrman] [Greer-Heard Point-Counterpoint Forum 2016] [Larry Hurtado] [Michael Bird]

February 10, 3PM

There is a post about the textual transmission of the Bible at the (US) Gospel Coalition website: Debunking Silly Statements About the Bible. Unfortunately all around (for the author, Greg Gilbert, his book, the Gospel Coalition) this post contains a numb...


Following up on my follow up on the Byzantine text, it’s instructive to see just how close the text found in the majority of our manuscripts is to the initial text in the Catholic Epistles. From the ECM supplement, here are the number of readings where ... [Byzantine Text] [Byzantine text type] [ECM]

February 7, 8AM

The DevilCodex Gigas, otherwise known as the “Devil’s Bible” is considered the largest Medieval Latin codex. Its pages are 35 inches tall and 19 inches wide and contains the complete Bible along with several other works from Josephus and others mean... [codex gigas] [devil's bible] [digital images]

February 4, 4AM

As a follow-up to my post about text-types from last week, here is an example of how our definitions of texts can influence our thinking about textual criticism. It matters particularly when it comes to comparing one “text” to another.In their new boo... [Andrew Pitts] [Byzantine Text] [Byzantine text type] [ECM] [Stanley Porter] [Text Types]

February 3, 1AM

A grant for postdocs to study biblical fragments at St. Gallen has been announced by the Fragmentarium Fellowship (HT: Christina Kreinecker):CALL FOR APPLICATIONS Fragmentarium fellowship 2016 Stiftsbibliothek St. Gallen The Fragmentarium Fellowship ... [Fragmentarium fellowship] [grants] [St. Gallen]

February 2, 6AM

Find the missing word in this verse:Luke 14:27 And whoever does carry their cross and follow me cannot be my disciple.This is the text produced by the first hand of Vaticanus, though I am glad that eventually the missing 'ου' was added above the line.ο... [Codex Vaticanus] [Luke 14:27] [Scribal errors.]


The Vatican Library has just released images of P.Bodmer VIII online! (HT: Brent Nongbri) [GA P72] [Vatican Library]

January 29, 4AM

Manuscripts: great placesto look for new manuscripts.Dan Wallace teases us on his blog with a note that he has recently found more uncatalogued NT manuscripts in Athens.I recently returned from two weeks in Athens, working at the National Library of Greec... [CSNTM] [Dan Wallace] [New Manuscripts]

January 28, 4AM

Without doubt, one of the most important manuscripts for our modern editions of the Hebrew Scriptures is the Leningrad Codex B19a, and many institutions own the facsimile edition. [Interesting that people stick with the name ‘Leningrad Codex’ and that... [Hebrew Manuscripts] [Hebrew Scripture] [Leningrad Codex] [masoretic]

January 27, 4AM

I came across the textual variant at the end of Lk 12:38, 'Blessed are these'. The issue here is the presence / absence of οι δουλοι in μακαριοι εισιν οι δουλοι εκεινοι (I think οι δουλοι shouldn't be there, yet... [Codex Sinaiticus] [Corrections] [Luke 12:38]

January 26, 4AM

Martin L. WestIn his book Textual Criticism and Editorial Technique (1973), Martin West raises an important issue for the use of text-types in NT textual criticism. Here is West:When the critic has established that no stemma can be constructed, how i... [E.C. Colwell] [Eldon J. Epp] [Martin West] [stemmatics] [Text Types]

January 22, 7AM

Under labels like "female explorers and kickasswomen," Ailsa Ross blogs in Atlas Obscura (20 Jan) about the Scottish twins and biblehunters  Agnes and Margaret Smith. If you want to know moreAgnes Smith Lewis, In the Shadow of Sinai: A Story of Trave... [Agnes and Margaret Smith] [Bible Hunters] [Gibson] [Sisters of Sinai]

January 21, 9AM

The Hands that Wrote the Bible: Digital PalaeographyThe ERC project The Hands that Wrote the Bible: Digital Palaeography and Scribal Culture of the Dead Sea Scrolls invites applications for a 4-year PhD position and a 3-year Postdoc position. This ERC pro...

January 15, 2PM

I have had the great honor to work with the research staff of the Kirchliche Hochschule Wuppertal-Bethel for several years now, formerly as a wissentschaftlicher Mitarbeiter, and now as a research associate.  In the last month, the institution has se...

January 14, 6AM

In this post I want to draw the attention to Dr. Brice Jones' fine PhD thesis submitted to Concordia University in July last year, "New Testament Texts on Greek Amulets from Late Antiquity." A revised version of the thesis will be published in 2016 ... [amulets] [Brice Jones] [Concordia university] [Dissertation] [GA 0262] [GA P105] [GA P78]

January 12, 2AM

I recently finished working through all the singular readings in James according to the Editio Critica Maior (ECM). There are 1,245 of them according to my data. I picked James because it has the most manuscripts of all the books in the ECM of the Catholi... [ECM] [james] [scribal errors] [Singular Readings] [statistics]

January 8, 3AM

The journal TC: A Journal of Biblical Textual Criticism was founded by James Adair in 1996 as one of the first electronic journals devoted to Biblical Studies. In 2010 the journal was relaunched after some time of inactivity, when Jan Krans, Tim Fin... [20 year anniversary] [CBGM] [Coherence-Based Genealogical Method] [TC Journal]

January 5, 6AM

Welcome to a new year with the ETC blog and lots of textual criticism!At the SBL meeting in Atlanta, we celebrated the 10-year anniversary of the blog at the annual ETC blogdinner, and the founding father Peter Williams held a speech looking back at the t... [10 year anniversary] [ETC blog] [SBL Atlanta]

December 29 2015, 2AM

As 2015 comes to a close, it’s time for that yearly tradition, the Year in Review. Here at the ETC blog we’ve had over 165 posts and over 172,000 hits in 2015 according to Google Analytics. (Blogger stats are much higher because apparently they count ... [blog traffic] [ETC blog] [year in review]

December 23, 6AM

In time for your Christmas Eve service, here is the text of the Christmas story in Matthew and Luke from a selection of 3rd-11th century Greek manuscripts. (Links will take you to larger versions.) Merry Christmas!MatthewMatt 1:1-11 (P1) - 3rd cent.M... [Christmas]

December 15, 3AM

Barbara Bordalejo has been heavily involved in the use of computer-aided stemmatics since at least the time of her NYU doctoral thesis (2003; found here).In the newest issue of Digital Scholarship in the Humanities she has an important essay on how t... [Barbara Bordalejo] [CBGM] [Digital Scholarship in the Humanities] [stemmatics]

December 11, 3AM

Call for Papers for the 13th annual conference of the European Society for Textual Scholarship (ESTS) that will be hosted by the University of Antwerp’s Centre for Manuscript Genetics. Conference Title: Digital Scholarly Editing: Theory, Practice, Metho... [Call for Papers] [DiXiT] [ESTS]

December 9, 5PM

Yii-Jan Lin has a new book coming out next month that is the published form of her Yale dissertation. The provocative title is The Erotic Life of Manuscripts: New Testament Textual Criticism and the Biological Sciences (OUP).Publisher’s Description... [book notes] [cladistics] [Yii-Jan Lin]

December 8, 2AM

Not this many.The short answer is no one knows because most of our manuscripts remain uncollated. But this has not stopped scholars from offering numbers since at least the publication of John Mill’s 1707 edition of the Greek New Testament.That edition ... [NTS] [number of variants] [statistics]

December 4, 2AM

There is an interesting review of the following book at BMCR: Joachim Friedrich Quack, Daniela Luft (ed.), Erscheinungsformen und Handhabungen Heiliger Schriften. Materiale Textkulturen, Bd 5.  Berlin; München; Boston:  De Gruyter, 2014."Ersche...

December 3, 2AM

Thomas Wayment has an article in the latest issue of Vigiliae Christianae (69.5) giving the editio princeps of a small papyrus containing Col 3:9–10 which he dates to the IV/V century.ImagePhoto: Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, UC ... [amulets] [Col 3.9-10] [New Manuscripts] [Thomas Wayment]

December 1, 3AM

ETC blog dinner 2015.ETS and SBL are now finished although my internal clock has yet to be convinced. This year there was a spate of text critical papers—many more than I could attend or take notes on. So here is a sampling of what was on offer this yea... [CSNTM] [Distigmai] [Elijah Hixson] [ETS Atlanta 2015] [J. D. Atkins] [Karin B. Neutel] [Mike Kruger] [Phil Payne] [Robert Marcello] [Ronald Troxel] [SBL Atlanta 2015]

November 30, 8AM

Here is a report from the session on Christian Apocrypha joint with Papyrology and Early Christian Backgrounds at SBL Atlanta on 21 November.The first paper in this session was presented by Geoffrey Smith who always has very interesting presentations. Som... [Geoff Smith] [Papyrus 134] [SBL Atlanta 2015]

November 29, 1PM

The ETC Blog found its way onto the front page of the Boston Globe today as part of a surprisingly well-written article on the current state of doubt about the Gospel of Jesus’ Wife. Speaking of Christian Askeland’s blog post on the John fragment... [Christian Askeland] [Gospel of Jesus' Wife]

November 26, 12 PM

While at SBL this last week I noticed that Brill has a major new resource in development called the Textual History of the Bible which is being published both in print and online. The preview describes the new series as follows:As a new type of refer... [book notes] [Brill] [Old Testament Textual Criticism] [Textual History of the Bible]

November 24, 3AM

Mike was presented with a Festschrift at SBL. Congratulations to him and the editors and all the contributors (see below). Dan Gurtner presenting the book to Mike (HT HH); the cover (HT JH); and the contents. ContentsForeword ixBart D. Ehrman Abbreviat...

November 21, 4AM

Today I will attend the Papyrology and Early Christian Backgrounds session at the SBL in Atlanta. The first paper by Geoff S. Smith, University of Texas at Austin, is of particular interest:Preliminary Report on the “Willoughby Papyrus” of the Gospel ... [amulets] [Brice Jones] [Geoff Smith] [Gospel of John] [Papyrus]

November 18, 2PM

Eisenbrauns is running a special sale on textual criticism starting today (when ASOR opens) which runs through the following Tuesday evening (when AAR/SBL closes).All that is required is to put the title(s) in the shopping cart. At check-out, one needs to... [Book Sale] [Eisenbrauns]


The call for papers and booking forms are now open for the Sixth British Patristics conference.The conference will be held at the University of Birmingham from Monday 5th to Wednesday 7th September 2016.Proposals are invited for papers on any aspect of pa...

November 16, 7AM

Today, the Center for the Study of New Testament Manuscripts (CSNTM) launched their new and vastly improved website at Here are some of the features that are announced on the vastly improved website now and in the coming weeks:New Manuscripts ... [CSNTM] [website]

November 14, 2PM

I found this the other day while tidying up old files, and thought it might offer a change from our more usual offerings on the blog. There will be a test at the SBL blog dinner.

November 12, 2PM

The following came in an email from (emails which I now have to read avidly), and looks very useful. Peter Head.Germany has over 140 doctorate awarding higher education institutions, many of which don’t charge tuition fees, and numerous... [jobs] [PhD]

November 9, 5PM

Stanley Porter and Andrew Pitts’s new introduction to New Testament textual criticism is out now (according to Amazon) and should be available at ETS/SBL according to Eerdmans.Some of the things I noticed in looking at the table of contents: there are c... [Andrew Pitts] [book notes] [Stanley Porter]

November 5, 1AM

Two new interviews in the podcast series on iTunesU "Pioneers of the Trade" from Center for the Study of New Testament Manuscripts (CSNTM) have appeared recently:Bill Warren describes the current state of textual criticism, especially related manuscript d... [CSNTM] [Interviews] [podcasts]

November 2, 3AM

I use the Editio Critica Maior frequently and I continue to be impressed by how well it combines clarity with great detail. Yes, it takes a bit of getting used to its format (as with any large apparatus), but once you’ve got the basics, it’s great.But... [1 John] [ECM] [ECM errata] [Editio Critica Maior] [GA 180] [GA 2918] [syriac]

October 29, 12 PM

As noted in the British Library blog, the British Library has lent the NT of Codex Sinaiticus to the British Museum for a special display down the road (in its old home). This means that when you go to the British Library you can see some of the Greek Old... [Codex Sinaiticus]

October 28, 11AM

Eisenbrauns is currently doing a sale with up to 60% discount on titles in textual criticism (good through November 5). My own The Epistle of Jude: Its Text and Transmission is one of the offered titles: ...


One new article by John Granger Cook and a number of new reviews have appeared in the current issue of TC: A Journal of Biblical Textual Criticism 20 (2015). More to come soon!New article John Granger Cook, Julian’s Contra Galilaeos a... [Article] [Book Reviews] [TC Journal]

October 20, 5AM

This year's annual blog dinner will be held at Pitty Pat's Porch, an excellent Atlanta establishment whose ambiance and cuisine hearkens back to the classic novel and motion picture Gone with the Wind.  All who are interested in biblical textual crit... [ETC blog dinner] [SBL Atlanta 2015]

October 19, 12 AM

There are a number of puzzles to resolve in 1 Peter 3.20 but I’ve come across a new one, at least with its transmission and reception. The Harklean Syriac of 1 Peter 3.20 tells of “eight souls rescued by (byad ܒܝܕ) water.” Notably, the Syria... [1 Peter 3.20] [Harklean Syriac] [Marginal Notes] [Mark 9.49]

October 15, 2PM

The British Library is recruiting a Curator of Ancient and Medieval Manuscripts with a special responsibility for Classical, Biblical and Byzantine Manuscripts:Job purpose To develop and manage the Library’s collections of Ancient and Medieval Manuscrip... [British Library] [curator] [job opening]


The spelling of the relatively simple word for 'more' in Greek, is in actual fact quite complex. The neuter single of the word occurs in three different forms in the Nestle-Aland editions (and I expect in two different forms in the Byzantine texts): πλ... [Luke 3:13] [Mat 26:53] [orthography]

October 10, 2AM

There are obviously many great things about NA28, but there are also some ongoing niggles. One thing I've come across recently is the situation with some of the "diamond" readings in the Catholic Epistles. These "diamond" readings are those where the edit...

October 9, 5AM

Center for the Study of New Testament Manuscripts (CSNTM) offers a number of interviews in a series called "Pioneers of the Trade: Famous Text-Critical Scholars"  which is freely available on iTunes-U.A few days ago, a new interview appeared with Dr.... [CSNTM] [Ekaterini Tsalampouni] [Interviews] [iTunes-u]

October 8, 2AM

Image setup for the experiment.There is a fascinating new article out today in the journal Digital Scholarship in the Humanities (more on which later) on multispectral imaging (MSI). What makes this article so interesting is that the author... [digital humanities] [Digital Scholarship in the Humanities] [multispectral imaging]

October 6, 1AM

While looking at the new journals shelf last week I noticed a number of text critical articles have come out recently.Novum Testamentum  57.5Ronald H. van der Bergh, “Old Testament Awareness” and the Textual Tradition of the Explicit Qu... [Codex Bezae] [Codex Sinaiticus] [Corrections] [GA 05] [GA P46] [harmonizations] [Job 7.3-4] [Josef Schmid] [LXX] [nomina sacra] [P46] [Septuagint] [Use of OT in NT]

September 29, 8AM

Minuscule 1573 writes the section Mt 25:22-23 twice. Not good.This is the relevant section (images available here and here at the NT.VMR):I don't know who is responsible for crossing out the duplicated words, it may be the scribe, it may be a later reader...

September 28, 11AM

The weather probably isn’t too bad in February.Another conference ETC readers might be interested in.February 25-27, 2016 Houston Baptist UniversityIn celebration of upcoming 500th anniversary of Erasmus’ Greek text and the Reformation, the Department... [Conferences] [Erasmus] [Houston]

September 23, 7AM

The Cologne Center for eHumanities is organizing the second DiXiT convention, taking place 16-18 March 2015 in Cologne, Germany. The conference will be preceded by a day dedicated to workshops on:Publishing Models for Digital Scholarly EditionsAggregation... [Call for Papers] [Conferences] [DiXiT]

September 22, 1AM

It is a pleasure for me to introduce our next interview. John (Ioannis) Karavidopoulos (1937–) is Emeritus Professor of the Theological School of Aristotle and is best known among English-speaking scholarship for his membership on the editorial com... [Interviews] [John Karavidopoulos] [UBS GNT]

September 18, 9AM

While reading Richard Hays' book, Reading Backwards, I became fascinated with this symbol: It occurs fifteen times in the book, bringing a sense of unity and coherence to the otherwise narrativally disparate elements (cover, table of contents, ch...

September 16, 7AM

At the last annual SBL meeting in San Diego, my Swedish colleague Mikael Winninge, who chairs the Formation of Luke and Acts program unit, mentioned the idea to have a joint session with New Testament textual criticism to discuss Marcion's Evangelion, th... [Dieter Roth] [Jason BeDuhn] [Judith Lieu] [Marcion] [Marcion's Gospel] [Markus Vinzent] [Ronald van der Bergh] [SBL Atlanta 2015]

September 15, 2AM

Judith Lieu, whose own book on Marcion was published earlier this year, has a good review of Dieter Roth’s recently published The Text of Marcion’s Gospel (Brill). The whole review is worth reading, but here is the conclusion in which she extols ... [Dieter Roth] [Judith Lieu] [Marcion] [Marcion's Gospel]

September 10, 12 AM

Tim Finney has written a summary of the inaugural "Digital New Testament" pre-conference workshop, held at DH2015 in Sydney earlier this year: [conference] [digital humanities]

September 9, 1AM

Posted below is the second part of my interview with Maurice Robinson. You can read part one here.[PG] In a previous interview you said that, within a normal transmission process, we should expect to find the autographic text preserved “within a si... [Byzantine Text] [Interviews] [Maurice Robinson] [pro-Byzantine]

September 8, 11PM

-->Call for papers: Byzantines and the Bible DEADLINE 30 September 2015 23rd International Congress of Byzantine Studies, Belgrade, 22-27 August 2016Recent scholarship has turned its attention to the role of the Bible in the Byzantine world, notably wi... [Call for Papers] [Conferences]


A collection described as the world's largest private collection of rare books and manuscripts is due to be liquidated. The collection, amounting to 135,000 documents from 54 manuscript collections, was acquired by Aristophil, a French company run by Gér...

September 7, 1PM

I spent three wonderfully quiet hours this morning in the Wren Library, under the gaze of Richard Bentley (and other luminaries) checking out some leads for my research on Hort's relationship with Tregelles.During his life Tregelles had very cordial relat... [Abbott] [Hort] [Tregelles] [Vansittart]

September 3, 8AM

The word ακαταστατον ('unstable') in Jms 3:8 invites textual variation by its very meaning, and the alternative ακατασχετον is, as far as I am concerned, a full alternative (there is a case to have it in the margin, at the very least... [ECM] [GA 1739] [James 3:8]

August 31, 3AM

If you’re still wondering, the answer to my quiz of last week is none other than that Byzantine Beatle, Maurice A. Robinson. Maurice also happens to be the first participant in what I hope will be an ongoing series of interviews with text critics. ... [Byzantine Text] [Interviews] [Maurice Robinson] [pro-Byzantine]

August 28, 4PM

Breaking NewsAndrew Bernhard, independent scholar, has produced new evidence that once again demonstrating the modern origins of the Gospel of Jesus Wife (GJW).  For the technical details, I refer the reader to Bernhard's analysis, here.Grondin's Int... [forgery] [Gospel of Jesus' Wife] [hoaxes and forgeries] [Karen L. King]

August 27, 10AM

As one of the editors, I am delighted to announce that a new fine article has been published in the current volume of TC: A Journal of Biblical Textual Criticism.  Peter Malik, The Earliest Corrections in Codex Sinaiticus: Further Evidenc... [articles] [Codex Sinaiticus] [Peter Malik] [TC Journal]

August 24, 3PM

This is a synthesis of some breaking news developments on the Gospel of Jesus Wife forgery with a short comment by myself at the end.Karen King, Harvard professor On pages 8–9 of the most recent BAR issue (Sept–Oct 2015), Karen King responded to ... [forgery] [Gospel of Jesus' Wife] [hoaxes and forgeries] [Karen L. King]


August 20, 12 AM

With the help of Pete Malik, I’ve put together the following bibliography of scribal habits. It is noticeably weighted toward the Greek New Testament, but I wouldn’t mind expanding it beyond that. I should add that Pete and I used slightly different f... [bibliography] [Peter Malik] [Scribal habits] [scribal practices]

August 17, 2AM

My new article on "Manuscripts of the Lord's Prayer" has just been published on the Bible Odyssey, a website developed and maintained by Society of Biblical Literature. On the Bible Odyssey, biblical scholars "share the latest historical and literary res... [Bible Odyssey] [lord's prayer] [manuscripts of the Lord's prayer]

August 14, 1AM

In closing his work on the final part of S.P. Tregelles’ Greek New Testament, F.J.A. Hort said the following about Tregelles’ work:His services to the exact knowledge of the New Testament are already better and more widely understood than they were a ...

August 12, 12 AM

Releasing this week is what looks like a substantial new book on Christian text from Oxyrhynchus titled Christian Oxyrhynchus: Texts, Documents, and Sources by Lincoln H. Blumell and Thomas A. Wayment.Hardcover: 752 pagesPublisher: Baylor University ... [book notes] [Oxyrhynchus] [Oxyrhynchus Papyri]

August 7, 2AM

The publisher’s advertisements at the back of the edition list “E. Nestle” as the editor.Just recently, I came across Eberhard Nestle’s report in the Expository Times on the first edition of his Greek New Testament. I found this by way of War... [Eberhard Nestle] [Expository Times] [Nestle-Aland editions]

August 5, 2AM

I have just received Carla Falluomini's fine monograph on The Gothic Version of the Gospels and the Pauline Epistles: Cultural Background, Transmission and Character published by De Gruyter in the ANTF series (vol. 46), edited by D. C. Parker and Holger S... [Book Reviews] [Byzantine Text] [Carla Falluomini] [Codex Argenteus] [Gothic version] [Wulfila]

August 4, 5AM

The Annual Meeting of the British New Testament Society (BNTC) is being held this year at the University of Edinburgh from 3–5 September and there are a number of text critical papers on offer. There are enough, in fact, to make you wonder why there isn... [BNTC 2015] [Darius Müller] [ECM] [GA P47] [Garrick V. Allen] [nomina sacra] [Peter Gurry] [Peter Malik] [Revelation] [Scribal habits] [Zachary Cole]


I have just returned from the SNTS 70th annual conference in Amsterdam, where we had lots of good presentations. I might report on them later on. As usual, a number of publishers exhibit their books and even with conference discount, some of the books are... [Brill] [Brill MyBook] [print-on-demand]

July 30, 9AM

For the introduction to this book and review series, see my previous posts: Part 1, Part 2.   N.P. Lunn, The Original Ending of Mark: A New Case for the Authenticity of Mark 16:9-20 (Eugene, OR: Pickwick, 2014).Ch. 2 External Evidence (1): Bibli...


In a comment that, for some inexplicable reason, did not appear in the sidebar, Hugh Houghton has given details about how to access Elliott’s bibliography of GNT manuscripts online. Unfortunately the process is laborious, but it will save you a lot of c... [bibliography] [Bibliography of GNT MSS] [Hugh Houghton] [J. K. Elliott]

July 28, 3PM

As one of the editors of TC: A Journal of Biblical Textual Criticism, it is my pleasure to announce that some articles and reviews have been published in the current issue, vol. 20 (2015), and that more is to come.ArticlesRebekka Schirner, Augustine’s E... [augustine] [Charles Quarles] [explicit references to variant readings] [Matt 27:53] [Rebekka Schirner] [TC Journal]


The SNTS is meeting in Amsterdam this week. Interesting papers include:Main Paper IV (Aula) – Prof. Tobias Nicklas (Regensburg), “Neutestamentlicher Kanon, christliche Apokryphen und antik-christliche Erinnerungskulturen.” Seminar 7 [...

July 27, 1AM

Samer Soreshow Yohanna. The Gospel of Mark in the Syriac Harklean Version: An Edition Based upon the Earliest Witnesses. Biblica et Orientalia 52. Rome: Gregorian & Biblical Press, 2015. xi + 196. €48 (hardback); £5.75 (e-book)“No other branch of... [Book Reviews] [critical editions] [Ending of Mark] [Harklean Syriac] [Mark] [Samer Yohanna] [syriac]

July 23, 1AM

For the introduction to this book and review series, see my previous post.  N.P. Lunn, The Original Ending of Mark: A New Case for the Authenticity of Mark 16:9-20 (Eugene, OR: Pickwick, 2014).Ch. 1: IntroductionThe introductory chapter opens up...

July 21, 1AM

Ein Gedi scroll. (photo credit)Yesterday, various news outlets reported the recent identification of Leviticus 1.1-8 in a charred scroll from Ein Gedi. First discovered in the 1970, the contents have been a mystery ever since. But with technology dev... [Dead Sea Scrolls] [Leviticus 1.1-8] [Technology]

July 20, 1AM

The latest issue of Early Christianity (6.2) has an interesting short article from Robert M. Calhoun on the reading of Codex Bezea at Acts 17.27. Instead of reading that every nation has been made “to seek God” (ζητεῖν τὸν θεόν), B... [Acts 17:27] [Codex Bezae] [Marginal Notes] [Robert M. Calhoun]

July 16, 1AM

The other day I received in the mail the following book: N.P. Lunn, The Original Ending of Mark: A New Case for the Authenticity of Mark 16:9-20 (Eugene, OR: Pickwick, 2014).When it came out I got a copy on my Kindle, but I liked it so much I thought... [Ending of Mark]

July 15, 2AM

Call for PapersAltertumswissenschaften in a Digital Age: Egyptology, Papyrology and BeyondWorkshop, Leipzig, November 4-6, 2015Felix-Klein-Hörsaal, Paulinum, Augustusplatz 10, 4th FloorHashtag: #DHEgypt15Call for Papers for Junior Scholars – English Ve...

July 14, 6AM

While pondering the relationship of the initial text and the original text (as one does), a thought experiment occurred to me. I shared it with a friend who was asking about the difference between the initial text and the original text. This caused my fri... [2 Peter 3.10] [CBGM] [conjectural emendations] [initial text] [original text]

July 9, 4PM

A little fun for your Friday. See if you can guess the source of the following quote. (Remember, it’s no fun if you ask Google.)“If the primary purpose of this discipline is to get back to the original text, we may as well admit either defeat or victo... [Bart Ehrman] [Editio Critica Maior] [original text]

July 6, 1AM

Yale University Library has a helpful website called the Traveling Scriptorium that’s meant to serve as a teaching aid for the study of the medieval and early modern book. It’s run by by the library’s conservators and curators and, although updates ... [book binding] [medieval scribes] [Traveling Scriptorium] [Yale University]

June 30, 8AM

At 2 Peter 2.14, the majority of Greek witnesses describe a group of people “having eyes full of an adulteress” (ὀφθαλμοὺς ἔχοντες μεστοὺς μοιχαλίδος). Charles Bigg concluded in his ICC commentary that th... [2 Peter 2.14] [ancient Greek spelling] [correcting UBS spelling] [ECM] [NA28 Apparatus] [UBS5]

June 26, 1AM

In 1 Clement 5.6 we read that Paul had borne chains seven times: 'After he had been seven times in chains, had been driven into exile, had been stoned, and had preached in the east and in the west, he won the genuine glory for his faith ...' (M Holmes tra...

June 25, 11PM

There is a fairly new online database for Syriac manuscripts called e-ktobe. The aim of listing “all syriac manuscripts in the world” is quite ambitious. From the website:E-ktobe is a database on Syriac manuscripts which aims to collect information on... [manuscript catalogue] [syriac]

June 24, 10AM

The most recent issue of the journal New Testament Studies offers a series of articles on the Gospel of Jesus's Wife controversy, all contending that the fragment is a modern creation and not an authentic ancient manuscript.  The following list summa... [forgery] [Gospel of Jesus' Wife]

June 23, 1AM

Congratulations to David Parker.The Queen has recognised David Parker's contribution to New Testament Textual Criticism (and incidentally 'Higher Education') by appointing him as an Officer of the Order of the British Empire (OBE). This means David is now...

June 22, 1AM

A master thesis by P. R. De Lange was presented last year at the North-West University, Potchefstroom Campus and has now come under my radar: “The influence of atticism on the textual transmission of I John with particular reference to the Alexandrian t...

June 16, 3AM

The March issue of Ephemerides Theologicae Lovanienses, has an article from Thomas Kraus exploring what text critics need in their critical editions with an interesting example from Luke 14.5. The article is “Kritische Ausgaben des Neuen Testa... [articles] [conjectural emendations] [Luke 14.5] [NA28] [nomina sacra] [Thomas Kraus] [UBS5]

June 15, 1AM

William Tabbernee (ed.), Early Christianity in Contexts: An Exploration across Cultures and Continents (Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2014). I’ve just finished reading this interesting book about Early Christianity which surveys the spread of Christiani... [book review] [Tabbernee] [versions]

June 13, 1AM

The Written Heritage of Mankind in Peril: Theft, Retrieval, Sale and Restitution of rare books, maps and manuscripts Seminar, British Library London, 26 June 2015  The theft of and illicit trafficking in rare books, maps and manuscripts loot...

June 11, 3AM

Local stemma for 2 Peter 3.10/48-50Following a question on Facebook regarding whether the CBGM had influenced the conjecture at 2 Peter 3.10 (οὐχ εὑρεθήσεται), I thought it would good to have an index of all the places where there has been... [2 Peter 3.10] [CBGM] [ECM] [Editio Critica Maior]

June 10, 1AM

Random fact about S.C.E. Legg's two volumes with variants on Mark and Matthew:they have no page numbers!S.C.E Legg, Euangelium secundum Marcum, Nouum Testamentum Graece secundum Textum Westcotto-Hortianum. Oxonii: e typographeo Clarendoniano, 1935.——...

June 8, 11PM

As noted earlier on the blog, CSNTM is currently on a major expedition in Greece digitizing the entire Greek NT collection of the National Library—over 300 manuscripts. It’s a huge undertaking and the results should be well worth it. If you read ... [CSNTM] [Dan Wallace] [Digitization] [National Library of Greece]


A completely revised and expanded third edition of Text-Critical Use of the Septuagint in Biblical Research will be published by Eisenbrauns this summer. Publisher’s descriptionThis handbook provides a practical guide for the student and scholar alike ...

June 4, 11PM

Just a quick note for our faithful blog commenters. Blogger allows for some basic HTML formatting which you may find useful. You can bold, italicize, and link as follows:If you want to italicize something, just enclose it in <em> or <i> tags l... [blog features]

June 3, 1AM

One of the great things about working in the field of NT manuscripts and textual criticism over the last decades has been the steady flow of new material. Just to show two strands of that flow:NA26 (published in 1979) listed NT papyri up to P88; and majus... [Green Collection] [IGNTP] [Nestle-Aland 28] [NT Papyri] [NT.VMR 2.0]

June 2, 6AM

The website for the Institut für Neutestamentliche Textforschung (INTF) is being updated. The new URL is and not all the old content is available there yet. But they’ve just put up a link to the old website which is av... [INTF] [VMR]

June 1, 4AM

A new book came out last October that I think deserves the attention of NT text critics, especially those working on all things stemmatic. It’s written by Paolo Trovato, a prolific Italian philologist (the same Trovato putting on the summer school).The ... [cladistics] [Lachmann] [Paolo Trovato] [stemmatics]

May 30, 1AM

Two Reverends found an old Bible in their church in Lancashire (which I think is somewhere in England). They discovered it was a 1611 “Great She Bible” - a KJV with a typo. One of them said:“This English language version of the Bible was created to ...

May 27, 11AM

The Alands have a nice chart showing the distribution of Greek NT manuscripts by century in their textual criticism handbook,  but the data are  almost 30 years old now. Thankfully, it’s possible to update their chart with data from the online...

May 26, 4AM

 This year, 2015, marks the 50th anniversary of the commissioning of the New International Version (NIV) in 1965. The actual translation was published in 1978.Pressrelease from Zondervan (Grand Rapids, MI) -- April 1, 2015:In 1965, the Committee on B... [50th anniversary] [CBT] [Committee on Bible Translation] [New International Version] [NIV]

May 25, 7AM

I recently learned two things I didn’t know: (1) there are five editions of the Hebrew Bible in various stages of production and (2) there is a new Hebrew Bible journal with a number of good articles on these editions.The journal is calle... [bhq] [Biblia Qumranica] [Eclectic Hebrew Bible] [Hebrew Bible] [Hebrew Bible: Critical Edition] [Oxford Hebrew Bible] [Samaritan Pentateuch]

May 24, 1AM

News in from the BBC: A first edition of one of the most important works of the man who inspired the Protestant Reformation has been discovered in a library in France. The publication by German theologian Martin Luther, called On the Freedom of a C...

May 21, 11PM

“Original text”?Not long ago I read the entry on New Testament textual criticism in a very good dictionary that claimed that the goal of textual criticism has shifted so that today the quest for the “original text” has been displaced by a quest fo... [initial text] [method] [original text] [Poll]


If you hang around Pete Williams long enough you will learn not to speak of the Septuagint unless you want a short lesson on the history of the translation of the Old Testament into Greek. Pete gives his reasons why he doesn’t believe in the Septua... [LXX] [Septuagint]


Craig A. Evans, 'How Long Were Late Antique Books in Use? Possible Implications for New Testament Textual Criticism' Bulletin of Biblical Research 25 (2015), 23-37. Abstract: Recent study of libraries and book collections from late antiquity has sho...

May 18, 1AM

D. Batovici, ‘Textual Revisions of the Shepherd of Hermas in Codex Sinaiticus’ ZAC 18 (2014), 443-470.Abstract: The last two books in what has survived of the fourth century biblical manuscript Codex Sinaiticus are the Epistle of Barnabas and the She... [Batovici] [Codex Sinaiticus] [Hermas]

May 14, 5AM

Over on Facebook it was observed that Brill was offering a collection of historic editions of the New Testament for sale.The Critical Editions of the New Testament OnlineThe Greek Text, Versions, and Transcriptions of Manuscripts...This series, earlier pu...



David Jenkins (Librarian for Classics, Hellenic Studies and Linguistics at Princeton University.) has an excellent database of digital images of Greek manuscripts: Digitized Greek Manuscripts. Currrently this lists 3360 Greek manuscripts which can be sear...

May 11, 1AM

From Dave Black:I am pleased to announce that The Pericope of the Adulteress in Modern Research has been accepted for publication in T & T Clark’s Library of New Testament Studies series. You may recall that SEBTS hosted a major conference... [David Black] [Pericope adulterae]

May 8, 1AM

G.W. Houston, Inside Roman Libraries: Book Collections and Their Management in Antiquity (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2014) is an important resource. Blurb: Libraries of the ancient world have long held a place in the public imaginat... [Books] [Houston] [Libraries]

May 6, 4AM

According to NA27/28 there is a variant at the start of Mt 10:33 (οστις δ̕ αν αρνησηται ...)1) text οστις δ' αν2) οστις δε (as in NA28; 1 2 as in NA27) B L 1424 pc3) και οστις WQuiz question: on the basis of the pr... [Codex Ephraemi Rescriptus] [Mat 10:33] [NA27] [NA28]

May 4, 11PM

Roger Omanson has passed away on April 30 after a short battle with pancreatic cancer at the age of 68.Omanson devoted most of his career to bible translation with the United Bible Societies, and authored numerous articles and books including A Textual ... [A Textual Guide to the Greek New Testament] [obituary] [Roger Omanson]


David van Biema has an interesting interview with David Trobisch: "David Trobisch lends Green family’s Bible Museum a scholarly edge"The interview poses the question of the nature of the theological tensions between Trobisch and Steve Green as, in Trobi...

April 30, 1AM

For obvious reasons we are accustomed to thinking of biblical texts on papyrus and parchment (the most obvious reason is that most biblical texts were in fact written on papyrus and parchment). Among the minuscules we also find manuscripts written on pape...

April 27, 2AM

Papyrus 28 (= P.Oxy. 1596) containing John 6:8-12, 17-22 formerly Berkeley, Pacific School of Religion, Palestine Institute Museum, Pap. has been sold to the private collector Gifford Combs, Los Angeles. (HT: Hugh Houghton)The first editors, Grenfell and ... [GA P28] [Gifford Combs] [Papyrus 28]

April 25, 1AM

Nestle’s first edition (1898) involved the mechanical process of comparing the text of Tischendorf with that of Westcott & Hort. When they agreed Nestle printed the text; when they disagreed he consulted R.F. Weymouth (1892) and printed the majority... [Nestle-Aland editions]

April 23, 1AM

1. Summer School in Textual CriticismThe Department of Humanities at the University of Ferrara offers an intensive 2-week summer school in textual criticism. The course is aimed at both graduate and PhD students in diverse disciplines who would like to...

April 21, 1AM

A helpful discussion with illustrations of the recent re-binding of one of the manuscripts in the Goodspeed collection in Chicago (connected with a project to put complete digital images of all the Greek manuscripts in the Goodspeed Collection).

April 18, 1AM

In our constant pursuit of excellence in the fulfilment of the mission of our blog it would be really helpful to have posts from all our blog members once in a while. Here are some suggestions if you are not feeling inspired (which would seem to apply to ...

April 17, 12 AM

The third edition of A Bibliography of Greek New Testament Manuscripts by J. Keith Elliott with the assistance of the Institut romand des sciences bibliques (IRSB) Université de Lausanne has been published by Brill. This is a must-have tool.ISBN13: 97890... [Bibliography of GNT MSS] [Book Note] [J. K. Elliott]

April 16, 1AM

Two interesting links to discussions of dirty manuscripts.Erik Kwakkel discusses dirty medieval books, including fingerprints, leaves and twigs, sand, pins, paint, and cat paws (with nine photos illustrating these). Final paragraph: While we are perhaps i...

April 13, 1AM

The volume arising from the major conference on Codex Sinaiticus in the summer of 2009 (see blogs here for the programme and here and here for “highlights”), is advertised in the most recent British Library catalogue for publication in June 2015, as f... [Codex Sinaiticus]

April 10, 7AM

This is a story about how difficult it can be to get the data right even before starting to ponder the original wording of a text.These are the opening words of Mt 6:5 as in Tregelles and NA28:Καὶ ὅταν προσεύχησθε, οὐκ ἔσεσθ... [Codex Sinaiticus] [Matt 6:5] [NA28 Apparatus]


The British Library Medieval Manuscripts blog reports that seventy-five more manuscripts are on-line. These seem to be the last group in the current project (hopefully they will get more funding to keep up the good progress). In this batch are a mountain ...

April 7, 1AM

From a footnote in something I am writing about letter-carriers:In 1909 Amling proposed a single-letter emendation to read  0Ihsouj rather than  0Ihsou= at Phile 23, and thus allow complete agreement in those sending greetings in Col 4.10-14 and...

April 4, 9PM

April 2, 9PM

March 30, 11PM

On 21 March, Jacob Harold Greenlee passed away at the age of 96. The following is an obituary written by his son, David Greenlee:JACOB HAROLD GREENLEEMay 12, 1918 – March 21, 2015Αὐτὸς δὲ ὁ θεὸς τῆς εἰρήνης ἁγιάσαι... [Harold Greenlee] [obituary]


New publication: R. Ast & J. Lougovaya, 'The Art of Isopsephism in the Greco-Roman World' in Ägytische Magie und ihre Umwelt (ed. A. Jördens; Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 2015), 82-98. Available here. Since Greek letters are used to represent numbers, i...

March 27, 2AM

Images of M 021 (a ninth century gospels majuscule) are now online. (HT Paul Anderson)For Images of NT Majuscules in Paris now:C 04: Ephraimi Rescriptus (Paris, Bibl. Nat., Gr. 9)D 06: Claromontanus (Paris, Bibl. Nat. Gr., 107)H 015: Coislinianus (Paris, ... [021] [digital images] [Paris]

March 24, 1PM

Currently the Liste gives a wonderfully ironic date for majuscule 0305 (Matthew 20) of -100 to -1 (here).The total absence of any discussion piqued my interest, and, thanks to the resources of the BnF I found an online image! The whole frame with multiple... [BnF Copt.133.2 fr.3] [Majuscule 0305] [Matthew 20:22-23]


Tommy Wasserman, 'The Coherence Based Genealogical Method as a Tool for Explaining Textual Changes in the Greek New Testament' Novum Testamentum 57 (2015) 206-218.Abstract: This article discusses the advantages of the the Coherence Based Genealogical Meth...

March 23, 2AM

I found this in an old draft post which I never posted. In addition to the general interest, it contains a very full and frank interview with Kurt Aland which is worth listening to.

March 21, 2AM

This summer, courses of Papyrology will be offered as part of the Leiden Summer School in Languages and Linguistics, which will be held from 13 - 24 July 2015 at the Faculty of Humanities of Leiden University. The Papyrology Programme consists of t...

March 19, 2AM

Christianity Today reports that Gordon College is planning to auction some of its Bibles: More than 90 years ago, Gordon College was given 7,000 rare books and artifacts by the family of Edward Payson Vining, a railroad executive and amateur Shakespeare...

March 17, 2AM

Go here for details of this year's London International Palaeography Summer School (June 15-19). Lots of choice, and there are course descriptions and reading lists to check out. E.g. there is a two day course in Greek Palaeography (led by Dr. Laura Franc...

March 15, 2AM

There is a really good post over at the BL blog on Greek manuscripts collected by Robert Curzon. A couple of years ago I was read Curzon's very entertaining account of his travels and manuscript collecting in his Visits to the Monasteries of the Levant (L...

March 13, 2AM

The Use of the Bible in Contemporary Culture 25th–27th June—University of ChichesterContemporary western culture contains many references and allusions to the Bible, especially in art, the media, and politics. Such allusions to the words, narratives ...

March 11, 4AM

Everyone who has worked a lot with the raw data of a manuscript knows that scribes seem to do many things on a whim, without any discernible rule. Editors of our modern text hate scribes for this and expect that the original that lies behind the manuscrip... [ancient Greek spelling] [Mark 16:8] [orthography]

March 10, 7AM

Peter Kirby has put together an excellent survey of information on the 14C dating of the Gospel of Judas, here.  The whole issue is complicated, particularly for those without a firm grounding in the application of radiometric dating, but I can summa... [Gospel of Judas] [Peter Kirby] [radiometric dating]


I’m pleased to be able to post here a report of some important new research from Gregory Heyworth and Roger Easton which will doubtless be of broader interest: Dating to the first half of the 4th century, the Codex Vercellensis or Codex A is the earlies...

March 9, 2AM

I recently came across a website called the Internet Bible Catalog. Notwithstanding that mis-spelling of "catalogue" I found this a useful resource in tracking down both a particular edition of an English translation of the NT, and also earlier and later ...

March 6, 11AM

I was getting together a handout for a seminar on Monday on the topic of Greek Lectionary manuscripts of the New Testament. But it is an area in which I readily confess my ignorance (and usually don't even get to in courses I have taught), so I thought I ... [lectionaries]

March 5, 5AM

I don't think that it will be possible to post regular up-dates for online images of the Vatican Library. They are aiming to get all 80,000 manuscripts photographed and on-line (1690 so far). Among those 80,000 are around 346 NT Greek manuscripts (the num... [Vatican Library]

March 2, 2AM

The William Schiede collection, which contains copies of the first six printed editions of the Bible, including a practically complete Gutenberg Bible (1455), as well as a host of other early printed books and manuscripts (including the NT manuscripts: 13...

February 27, 3AM

"Culture" is not perhaps the best word, but it'll do for the moment. Udo Schnelle's SNTS presidential address from last year has been published:U. Schnelle, 'Das frühe Christentum und die Bildung' NTS 61 (2015), 113-143.The abstract shows how interesting...

February 26, 2AM

The Washington Post offers a collection of Bible typos - just the thing to liven up that lecture a bit: When ‘Jesus’ was ‘Judas’ and other pretty stupendous Bible typos  Mark Ward posts a video (from a talk in a church) about Why Bible T...

February 24, 6AM

Over at PaleoJudaica, Jim Davila notes the recent discovery of an Ethiopic text of Jannes and Jambres (a work about the Egyptian magicians who opposed Moses in Exodus 7, known only incompletely, which may be categorised, following the lead of Origen, as a...

February 23, 2AM

Minuscule 298 (Paris, BN, Gr. 73)[Paul Anderson tells me: "It is a Byzantine and is a slightly weakened family Πa member clustered with GA 787 and 1478 with a typical μ5 PA form for this group."]Minuscule 484 (London, BL, Burney 21) [AD 1291-92]Mi...

February 19, 9AM

In an interesting new development in scholarly textual criticism the Vatican announced on Twitter that "The Bodmer Papyrus XIV-XV (P75) has a new name: Hanna Papyrus 1 (Mater Verbi)"  This is a new development, since until recently the Vatican h... [Bodmer Papyri] [Frank Hanna] [P75] [Vatican Library]


There is a nice post with great photos by Erik Kwakkel at Medievalbooks about the transportation of medieval books, including many Bibles, in bags, boxes, various types of containers and wraps: Box It, Bag It, Wrap It: Medieval Books on the Go

February 17, 2AM

Don McLean has said that the original manuscript of American Pie (for our younger readers who don't know what that is see below) will 'divulge everything there is to divulge' about the meaning of the track. Coincidentally he is also try to sell the 16 pag...

February 16, 10AM

The whole of Codex Vaticanus (OT and NT) now online.

12 AM

Byzantine News has announced the release of a good resource for the study of Byzantine art:The Glory of Byzantium: Art and Culture of the Middle Byzantine Era, edited by Helen C. Evans, William D. Wixom (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1997).This ex...

February 13, 2AM

News of a tremendous marketing and tax scam involving biblical manuscripts and evangelical seminaries is covered by Paul Barford and Roberta Mazza. (I am a bit busy to get into this right now, but if someone else is following things and wants to post on t...

February 10, 10AM

About this time last year I wrote a blog about the wikipedia page concerning Codex Alexandrinus, under the heading How Bad is Wikipedia? Codex Alexandrinus as a test case.  My general conclusion was fairly negative:"Wikipedia is quite bad. Facts...

February 9, 12 AM

The SBL International Meeting will be held in Bueonos Aires, Argentina on July 20-24. The call for papers closes this week, on 12 February. This is a reminder to log in on the SBL website and submit your proposal to the Working with Biblical Manuscripts (... [Call for Papers] [Ronald van der Bergh] [SBL Buenos Aires 2015] [Tim Sailors]

February 5, 12 PM

NEWSFLASH: A Greek New Testament papyrus (amulet) has been discovered in Birmingham!Read the ITSEE news release.

January 30, 12 PM

January 28, 3PM

I have had correspondence with Craig Evans and have his permission to confirm that he has not seen the alleged first-century manuscript of Mark and does not know the identity of the scholar or scholars to whom it has (presumably) been assigned for publica... [Craig Evans] [Dan Wallace] [First-century Mark]


New article: Vito Mocella, Emmanuel Brun, Claudio Ferrero & Daniel Delattre, 'Revealing letters in rolled Herculaneum papyri by X-ray phase-contrast imaging' Nature Communications 6, Article number: 5895 doi:10.1038/ncomms6895 (20.1.2015). Abstra... [Herculaneum papyri] [Technology] [xray]

January 26, 2AM

On the occasion of the eightieth anniversary of the official foundation of the 'Leids Papyrologisch Instituut’, there is an excellent online the virtual papyrus exhibition 'Texts from Ancient Egypt. Highlights from the Collection of the Leiden Papyro... [creed] [Leiden] [Papyrology]

January 23, 2AM

The History and Text of New Testament CommentariesThe provisional timetable is now available for the Ninth Birmingham Colloquium, to be held on 2nd-4th March 2015, and is included in this message below.Booking continues to be open for a couple of weeks: p... [Birmingham colloquium] [commentary]

January 20, 5AM

Discussion is beginning again about the claim that there is a first century manuscript of part of Mark's Gospel. In particular LiveScience reports such a claim associated with Craig Evans and this has been reported positively elsewhere. The report in the ...
Here is another blog quiz (for earlier quizzes see: the conjectural emendation quiz, the geography quiz, a monastery quiz, a western text quiz, a NT majuscule manuscript quiz, a general manuscript quiz). This one is a little different, a little more diffi...

January 16, 1AM

Some time ago, Peter Head blogged about a recent discovery of new fragments of the Gothic Bible. He referred to Carla Falluomini, who states in the new edition of The Text of the New Testament in Contemporary Research that: "no new parts of the Gothic Bib... [Carla Falluomini] [Codex Argenteus] [Gothic] [Gothic version]

January 15, 1AM

A textual commentary on passages that differs between the Nestle-Aland Novum Testamentum Graece (28th ed.) and the Robinson-Pierpont The New Testament in the Original Greek: Byzantine Textform (2005) is in the making. The editors are Maurice Robinson (cha...

January 13, 5AM

Today the Center for the Study of New Testament Manuscripts (CSNTM) publically announced the breaking news that they are to digitize all the NT MSS of the National Library of Greece in Athens. Manuscript lovers world wide can be happy that more MSS are be... [CSNTM] [Dan Wallace] [Digitization] [National Library of Greece]
For years the answer to this question was easy: P52, a manuscript identified and housed in Manchester, handsomely dated to the early 2nd century. C.H. Roberts wrote in the original publication of this fragment'On the whole we may accept with some confiden... [earliest manuscript of the NT] [Greek palaeography] [Oldest Manuscript of the New Testament] [P104] [P52]

January 11, 11PM

P. Oxy 4959 is a very interesting documentary letter of the second century - interesting at lots of levels in terms of content, style, grammar, compositional process (corrections and cross through), etc. (for info, text and ET see here) But it is also int...

January 9, 5AM

The 19th volume of TC: A Journal of Biblical Textual Criticism (2014) is now complete. A number of new articles have just been published on-line. The volume contains three full-length articles, two shorter articles ("notes"), one review article and plenty... [articles and reviews] [TC Journal]

January 8, 2AM

Brice Jones has found a papyrus fragment of John for sale on ebay - see here (it all looks plausible to me). Winchester Cathedral is trying to recover illuminations stolen from the twelfth-century Winchester Bible. The British Library has published a list...

January 7, 3AM

Everyone familiar with the early Greek majuscules is used to the absence of word division, which virtually forces you to vocalise every syllable in order to make sense of the text. Latin never had this problem, and I assume that whenever we have (late) ma...

January 5, 4AM

Since I noted that someone had scanned an old essay of mine, "Misquoting Manuscripts? The Orthodox Corruption of Scripture Revisited" which appeared in The Making of Christianity: Conflicts, Contacts, and Constructions: Essays in Honor of Bengt Holmberg (...

December 29 2014, 9AM

Chester Beatty Coptic Ms. CDigital Edition and Translation of the Coptic-­Sahidic Old TestamentInstitute for Egyptology and Coptic Studies, University of GöttingenThese are two-year fixed term positions starting at the earliest possible date on or after... [Coptic] [job opening] [Old Testament Textual Criticism]

December 28, 2PM

Newsweek on the Bible or Things every bible reader should knowJust in time for Christmas, Kurt Eichenwald laments that "The Bible" is "So Misunderstood It's a Sin"(Newsweek on the Bible) You may have read many of his profound insights on what th...

December 21, 2PM

A few days ago the European Association of Biblical Studies committee accepted a proposal by Theodora Panella (ITSEE, Birmingham) for a workshop with the title “Textual Criticism of the NT, the OT and the Qur’an” for the next EABS’ Annual Meeting ... [Call for Papers] [EABS] [Qur'an] [Textual Criticism] [Theodora Panella]

December 17, 2AM

December 10, 2PM

The following list was first posted on the website Four Senses by Erwin Ochsenmeier in 2009. I repost it here, as the information is no longer available. Below you will find the various TC sigla with their Unicode hexadecimal numbers and explanations. T... [digital humanities] [Sigla] [Unicode]

December 8, 7AM

I was interested to read at T.C. Robinson's blog about Gordon Fee's reasons for revising his commentary on First Corinthians (the revised NICNT, published this year). The third of his reasons is as follows:A third, probably less significant, change from t... [Gordon D. Fee] [Stephanus] [Verse numbering]

December 6, 6AM

Interesting new article in NTS: Matthew R. Crawford, ‘Ammonius of Alexandria,Eusebius of Caesarea and the Origins of Gospels Scholarship’ New Testament Studies 61 (2014), 1-29. Abstract: In the early third and fourth centuries respectively, ... [Ammonius] [Crawford] [Eusebian Canons] [Eusebius] [gospels] [Sinaiticus]

December 5, 12 AM

Those who have an interest in or are conducting research on the  Classical Ethiopic (Ge'ez) versions of the Bible, early Jewish  literature or early Christian literature are herewith advised of an academic conference that will take place next ye... [classical Ethiopic] [conference] [early versions] [Ge'ez]

December 1, 5AM

I think the two YouTube videos below are the first ones that I know of that deal with a biblical manuscript. Quite creative.The content of the second one is of slightly less quality than the first one, but interesting nonetheless.1. Journey of the Utrecht... [Utrecht Psalter] [video clip]

November 26, 5AM

San Diego 2014 proved to be one of the more academically rewarding conferences of recent years, mainly because I managed to choose the right sessions (and managed to avoid some reportedly disappointing ones). My strategy during such meetings is to attend ...


I would like to draw our readers' attention to a fine resource for Greek palaeography and codicology: Pyle which aims to (1) collect scattered resources from various individuals and institutions; and (2) aims to promote interaction among scholars, stude... [codicology] [Kirsopp Lake] [palaeography] [Pyle] [Silva Lake]

November 24, 6PM

I am testing the polling function on the new design and thought I would start with something that came up last night at the ETC blog dinner: conjectural emendation (discussed before on this blog).Do you approve of conjectural emendation for the New Testam... [conjectural emendations] [Poll]

November 17, 4AM

If you are looking for a Christmas present, there is a Homer papyrus for sale at looks pretty 4th century to me, and the text is from the Iliad bk 13, 565-580 (lower margin visible).


As you can see, we are trying a new look on the blog. Let us know what you think in the comments below.

November 13, 4PM

BL Add. MS 17202 dated colophon"The date of writing is given in l. 1 and l. 3 as A.S. 880 = A.D.569. This must have been the date of the completion of the work, of which different parts were written at different times; thus 12,4 was written in 561, and 12... [Barrie Wilson] [Gospel of Jesus' Wife] [Joseph and Aseneth] [simcha jacobovici]

November 7, 2PM

The Museum of the Bible has announced that ETC blog member, Michael Holmes, has been chosen to lead the Green Scholars Initiative.  You can read the full announcement, here.  The following excerpt details Mike's placement:Assuming the role of ex...


Further details (including abstracts of papers) from Alin Suciu's blog

November 5, 9AM

There is something interesting going on in the apparatus of NA28. But I need a long introduction ...For any critical edition of the Greek New Testament a decision is made which manuscript to include in the apparatus and which not. Nestle-Aland 28 divides... [CBGM] [consistently cited witnesses] [minuscule 2344] [minuscule 2492] [minuscule 442] [NA28]

November 1, 8AM

Sahidic Job, Naples, National Library, Ms.I.B.18Scholars have long had access to editions of the Coptic New Testament texts.  In addition to more recent editions of various NT texts, one could always check the extensive editions of George Horner...

October 31, 1AM

October 30, 1AM

A few recent web articles have mentioned a Latin text that records a miracle of Jesus. Supposedly the text is from a Marcus Velleius Paterculus from the first century. However, usable pictures of the text do not seem to be available and what is posted doe...

October 22, 9AM

Syriac Intellectual Culture in Late AntiquityTranslation, transmission, and influence This conference explores the intellectual cultures of Syriac-language literary and scholarly communities of the late antique (c. 3rd-9th century) Near and Middle East. I...

October 16, 12 PM

When:Sunday, 23 Nov 23, 7pmWhere:The Hard Rock CafeGroup Menu Price:$22For those of you attending SBL and interested in textual criticism, the annual blog dinner will take place after the NTTC session on Sunday night "Nestle-Aland 28th Revised Edition" (4...

October 15, 6AM

The Fifth St Andrews Scripture and Theology Conference: The Book of Jeremiah, 6-9 July 2015In July 2015, biblical scholars and theologians from around the world will gather to consider the Book of Jeremiah, using this ancient text to bring exegesis an...

October 14, 2AM

Though I don't think that there is much biblical stuff in the latest batch of Greek mss put online by the British Library, there is always something interesting, and this time it is a citation from the Gospel of Matthew. You can find the BL blog post here... [chrysostom] [majuscule 036] [Matthew 23] [minuscule 544]

October 13, 7AM

Here is a collection of surveys of scholarship on Mark. I couldn't find one which summarised text-critical work on Mark's Gospel. Surveys of Scholarly Literature:  R.S. Barbour, ‘Recent Study of the Gospel according to St. Mark’ Exp T 79 (1967-68...


Gorgias Press has a sale until 31 December on this newly published volume of ten papers presented at the Eighth Birmingham Colloquium on the Textual Criticism of the New Testament: Early Readers, Scholars and Editors of the New TestamentEdited by H. A. G....

October 11, 4AM

A young researcher, named Balazs Mikusi, found Mozart's own score of the Piano Sonata in A. He was a clever researcher because he was in a library 'leafing through folders of unidentified manuscripts'. That is the best place to discover manuscripts.He sai...

October 10, 12 AM

In the recent issue of Archiv für Papyrusforschung 60/1 (2014), Brent Nongbri  has published an article on "The Acquisition of the University of Michigan's Portion of the Chester Beatty Biblical Papyri and a New Suggested Provenance."The title perha... [Chester Beatty Biblical Papyri] [Provenance] [University of Michigan]

October 9, 7AM

The Giant Bibles of Twelfth-Century EnglandA series of three lectures in the British Library by Christopher de HamelThe great Latin Bibles, in huge multiple volumes, are by far the largest and most spectacular manuscripts commissioned in England in the ...

October 8, 6AM

TEXTUAL TRAILS. Transmissions of Oral and Written TextsHelsinki, 30 October – 1 November 2014Texts tend to travel across space and time, whether they are carried by sound waves, embedded in parchments, codices and books, or stored online. They pass ...

October 7, 1AM

The BBC reports the find of a glass plate in Spain (here). It mentions a 4th century date for this artefact, which may be true or not. The reconstruction is interesting:The central figure holding the cross is in all likelihood a depiction of Christ, while... [Archaeology] [Codex] [Gospel of Peter] [scroll] [Spain]

October 6, 7AM

Textsand Traditions: Essays in Honour of J Keith Elliott  (ed. J. Kloha & P. Doble; NTTSD 47; Leiden: Brill, 2014), The methodology of New Testament textual criticism, the critical evaluation of readings, and the history and texts of early Chris...

October 5, 4AM

October 4, 2AM

Since the study of the OT in the NT often (always?) depends on the study of the particular text forms involved, and because I have fond memories of attending some of these conferences years back, I include this note here:The Annual (Hawarden) Seminar on ...

October 3, 2AM

There is a helpful review at BMCR of a newly published Byzantine Greek lexicon: Eva Villani, Il lessico Ambrosiano inedito ΑΝΤΙΧΕΙΡ (C 222 inf., ff. 207r-208v).   Milano:  EDUCatt, 2014.  Pp. 248.  ISBN 9788867800865.  €...

October 1, 8AM

A year ago or so I was invited to contribute to SBL's project Bible Odyssey which was launched about two months ago. I was told that this week my article on the "Alexandrian Text" is highlighted on the Bible Oddysey home page, together with an article on&... [Alexandrian text] [Bible Odyssey] [early versions] [Pericope adulterae]

September 23, 8PM

We've partially cracked the previously undeciphered 20 sides of Codex Climaci Rescriptus. They contain astronomical texts by Aratus and Eratosthenes. In the case of the latter this is the earliest known manuscript.See further DeMoss press release.

September 17, 9AM

The Partitiones contains orthographical and inflectional observations on Greek. A number of these words appear to come from the Greek Bible, both Old and New Testament, though the work in itself does not betray any ecclesiastical Christian connection. Und...

September 9, 2AM

My review of James M. Robinson, The Story of the Bodmer Papyri: From the First Monastery's Library in Upper Egypt to Geneva and Dublin (Cambridge: James Clarke, 2013; ISBN 9780227172780) has been published in Review of Biblical Literature:The conclusion o... [Bodmer Papyri] [book review] [Dishna Papers] [James M. Robinson] [P66] [P75]

September 3, 2AM

The Daily Mail reports today (September 3rd, 2014) that Dr. Roberta Mazza, Research Fellow of the John Rylands Research Institute at the University of Manchester, recently made a significant re-discovery in the vaults of John Rylands Library. She found a ... [amulets] [John Rylands Library] [magic] [Matt 26:28-30] [Ps 78:23-24] [Roberta Mazza]

September 2, 7AM

When a substantial chunk of the Bible is cited in some ancient work and within the manuscript tradition of this work new variants happen, do they count for anything? Well, at the very least they give us another fresh set of stuff to study. Take this examp...

September 1, 6AM

Whilst preparing the slides for my paper at the BNTC conference for this coming Friday, I was delighted to find the oldest manuscript of Acts GA 0189 online. Normally I have some inkling of what is happening on a manuscript page, but what is happening in ...

August 22, 6AM

Hugh Houghton who leads the COMPAUL project at ITSEE in Birmingham announces a job opening:There is a vacancy for a postdoctoral research fellow to work on the COMPAUL project at the University of Birmingham, investigating the earliest commentaries on Pau... [COMPAUL] [ITSEE] [job opening]

August 4, 10PM

This is a guest post by Peter Gurry who just came home from the fifth Summer School of Greek Palaeography in Oxford: Last week was the fifth Summer School of Greek Palaeography hosted by Lincoln College in Oxford. This year’s program w... [Greek palaeography] [Lincold College] [Oxford] [Peter Gurry] [Summer school of Greek Palaeography]

July 25, 3AM

A real summer topic (with an apparatus error in NA28 thrown in for good measure). When transcribing a New Testament Greek manuscript for exercise, I encourage my students to include accentuation and breathing marks. Of course this slows things down consid... [033] [044] [accents] [Breathings] [P104] [transcriptions]

July 15, 11AM

Chris Keith (Historical Jesus blog) has uploaded my lecture  "Variants of Evil in the New Testament" from the conference on Evil in Second Temple Judaism and early Christianity. Thanks Chris for organizing this conference!For my previous report on th... [Conferences] [Tommy Wasserman] [variants of evil] [video lectures]

July 3, 1AM

In Kurt Aland's Synopsis [I am using the 4. korrigierter Druck 2005] a gorgeous error appears. In Mark 8:25 the text as printed reads και ενεβλεπεν τηλαυγως απαντα, 'and he saw everything clearly'. There are variants: παντα ... [critical editions] [Mark 8:25] [scribal errors] [Synopsis Quattor Evangeliorum]

July 2, 8AM

Hugh Houghton writes:This is advance notice to colleagues and attendees of former colloquia that the Ninth Birmingham Colloquium on the Textual Criticism of the New Testament will be held in Birmingham on 2nd-6th March 2015.The theme will be The Hi...

June 30, 2AM

Interesting blog post over at the British Library on GA 699 and the separate histories of its two parts (with nice pictures).This is a notable NT manuscript partly on the grounds that it was (unusually) a manuscript of the whole New Testament - one of o...

June 28, 2AM

We know that modern lexica are important for providing information on how modern scholars understand the meaning of words. And we know that ancient lexica are even more useful for providing information on how ancient scholars understood the meaning of wor...

June 26, 2AM

Building on Christian Askeland's argument that the Harvard Coptic John Fragment was textually dependent on Thompson's 1924 publication of the Qau codex (see The forgery of the Lycopolitan gospel of John) Stephen Emmel has recently done a great job on asse...

June 25, 1AM

Over the recent weeks I have been twice in a skirmish on the correct use of the terms recto and verso, and I blame the dark days of early papyrology for this (there are articles on this topic; I leave it to commentators to share that wisdom). Before the d... [Codicological terminology] [Recto] [Recto and Verso] [Verso]

June 18, 6AM

Oxford Bodl., Barocci 3 (G-A 314):Oxford Bodl., Barocci 28 (G-A 2101): (XIII; Gospels with Comm.; on paper) Oxford Bodl., Barocci 29 (G-A 46):(c. 1300; Gospels)Oxford Bodl., Barocci 31 (G-A 45): (XIII; Gospels)Oxford Bodl., Barocci 48 (G-A 2408 = fol. 18 ...

June 16, 4PM

I am running a promotional on my novels featuring the principles and practice of New Testament Textual Criticism this week. The Kindle edition of THE SCRIBES, Vol. 1 is free. The Kindle edition of THE SIGN OF THE DOLPHIN, Vol 2 is $0.99. Already over 700 ...


Roberta Mazza, Lecturer in Classics and Ancient History and John Rylands Research Institute Research Fellow, is organizing a conference on 4-6 September at John Rylands Library in Manchester which looks very interesting:  "From Egypt to Manchester: U...

June 11, 6AM

A new French introduction to New Testament textual criticism, edited by Christian-Bernard Amphoux, has just been published by Éditions Safran, Manuel de critique textuelle du Nouveau Testament. Introduction générale.  Contributors include C.-B. Am... [Book Note] [C.-B. Amphoux] [introduction]

June 6, 7AM

Heracleon wrote the earliest surviving commentary on any portion of the New Testament, and is an important witness to the state of the text of John in the second century. Here is some bibliography to get you started: A. E. Brooke, The Fragments of Heracle...

June 4, 2PM

Our very warm congratulations to Maurice who has been promoted to Research Professor of New Testament Studies at SEBTS (see here). Bruce Ashford, provost of Southeastern, said, “We are happy to allow him the opportunity to increase his research and wri...

May 30, 1AM

May 21, 7AM

Email from SBL:Texts lie at the heart of biblical studies and the related fields its members research and teach. It is with this core interest in mind that the Society of Biblical Literature has launched a web page providing resources for text-critical...

May 14, 4AM

No one is waiting for yet another set of corrections in Codex Bezae Cantabrigiensis, but in the recent transcriptions it seems that something has been left out. For example here in Mark 5:8 where there is correction of the nomen sacrum ο ιηυ to ο ι...

May 11, 2PM

May 9, 1AM

Darrell, to distract us from other matters, asked a question about an odd feature in 2892 (from the comments to the previous post).The second to last line ends Colossians 2:12. But then the next line begins with Colossians 3:4, meaning 14 verses were omi...

May 7, 8AM

In his article in the New York Times entitled 'How the 'Jesus' Wife' Hoax Fell Apart', Jerry Pattengale concludes with an interesting comment: 'this episode is not totally without merit. It will provide a valuable case study for research classes long aft...

May 5, 2AM

Over at Brice C. Jones' blog there is more news about the alleged first-century fragment of Mark, and many other recently discovered manuscripts (a 38 page manuscript of 1 or 2 Corinthians, the oldest copy of Romans, etc). Apparently, all the information ... [Brice Jones] [First-century Mark] [Josh McDowell] [Scott Carroll]

April 29, 2PM

My new novel, The Sign of the Dolphin, the second volume in the SCRIBES series, is now available in both electronic and printed form through It wrestles with the problem of the text of the Acts of the Apostles, and is the story of a missionary...

April 27, 12 PM

IntroductionI am grateful for the input that Alin Suciu, Mark Goodacre and many others have offered concerning the newly available Gospel of John fragment.  I will use the present page to post photographs, a compartitive transcription and relevant li... [Coptic] [Gospel of Jesus' Wife] [Gospel of John] [hoaxes and forgeries] [Karen L. King]

April 26, 5AM

This is a quick live update from Southeastern Baptist Theological Seminar hosting the Pericpoe Adulterae symposium. Image HT: Jacob CeroneRight now Jennifer Knust is presenting her paper, "Neither Add Nor Take Away..."(photo by Chris Keith)You can follow ...

April 24, 10AM

recto, Jn 5:26-30Through Gregg Schwendner and Malcom Choat, I have just become aware of something that I should have seen much earlier.  I read all of the Harvard Theological Review articles about the Gospel of Jesus's Wife, and assumed that the link...

April 23, 6AM

Mark Goodacre has posted on a Livescience article which claims to have invalidated part of Karen´s King reconstruction of the modern history of the Gospel of Jesus´s Wife.  In particular, the article identifies the former owner of the papyrus, Hans... [Gospel of Jesus' Wife] [hoaxes and forgeries] [Karen L. King]

April 16, 11PM

April 16, 2014Bedtime story for the budding little grammarian (and for all those eternally young of spirit). Set in larger font to accommodate the unformed inquisitive mind. (PDF)The Papyrus Fragment and the Crocodile: When Discerning a Blunder Is Itself ... [Gospel of Jesus' Wife] [hoaxes and forgeries] [Karen L. King] [Leo Depuydt]

April 14, 3AM

On page 178 of his Gospel of Jesus’s Wife (GJW) rebuttal, Leo Depuydt informed the reader of a parallel incident from 1990, which never made headlines in North America. In this case, someone forged and disseminated the following proceedings chapter, wh... [Gospel of Jesus' Wife] [Gospel of Thomas] [Leo Depuydt]

April 11, 12 AM

Book 2 in the Scribes series of novels focuses on the text of the Acts of the ApostlesTHE SIGN OF THE DOLPHIN is the second book in the series that started with THE SCRIBES: A NOVEL ABOUT THE EARLY CHURCH. Set in the year 184 A.D., this book contains a co...

April 10, 1PM

INTRODUCTIONEight of the eleven articles in the most recent issue of the Harvard Theological Review discuss the authenticity of the so-called Gospel of Jesus Wife (GJW), which Karen King publicized through a shrewdly-orchestrated media frenzy in September...

April 9, 4AM

New Article:E.B. Ebojo, 'When Nonsense Makes Sense: Scribal Habits in the Space-intervals, Sense-pauses, and Other Visual Features in P46' The Bible Translator 64 (2013), 128-150.AbstractThis article explores the visual and paratextual features embedded i... [Ebojo] [ETC blog] [P46] [Scribal habits] [Spaces]

March 31, 7AM

From the SBL Review of Biblical Literature 26 March 2014J. K. ElliottNew Testament Textual Criticism: The Application of Thoroughgoing Principles by Daniel B. Wallace This is an interest...

12 AM

Kathleen Maxwell, Associate Professor in the Department of Art and Art History, Santa Clara University, wrote her dissertation on "Paris, Bibliothéque Nationale, Codex Grec 54: An Analysis of the Text and Miniatures" under the supervision of Robert S.... [art history] [book notes] [GA 1528] [GA 16] [GA 990] [illuminations] [Kathleen Maxwell] [Paris gr. 54]

March 28, 11AM

Some readers may be interested in this:The Digital Humanities at Oxford Summer School (DHOxSS) is an annual training event taking place on 14 - 18 July 2014 at the University of Oxford for researchers, project manage...

March 27, 8AM

Dan Wallace has a helpful interaction with Craig Blomberg's new book on believing the Bible, especially in relation to the chapter on textual criticism of the NT (which mostly seems to focus on Bart Ehrman). Dan is positive about the book, but the nine er...

March 26, 8AM

Tomorrow I am heading for Oklahoma City for a conference on Dating Early Papyri and Manuscripts with the Green Scholars Initiative. In addition to my academic paper on some obscure subject connected with the palaeography of the early papyri and meeting up...

March 25, 11AM

Ed Andrew Edmondson, working on a PhD in beautiful Birmingham, sent in the following:John 12:15 quotes Zechariah 9:9: “Fear not, daughter of Zion; behold, your king is coming, sitting on a donkey's colt!”. Most of the manuscripts read ο βασιλε...


The British Library have announced that images of the British Library portions of Codex Sinaiticus are available through their Digitised Manuscripts collection. A quick look here suggests that they are the same images as used for the Codex Sinaiticus Proj...

March 24, 3AM

JTS have published J. K. Elliott's review of A User’s Guide to the Nestle–Aland 28 Greek New Testament. By David Trobisch.The pdf is (also?) available here. J Theol Studies published 22 March 2014, 10.1093/jts/flu045 Elliott is pretty critical...

March 21, 5AM

Another recent interesting article to add to Peter's recent list; apologies for not posting it when it appeared in January: Juan Hernández, Jr., "The Creation of a Fourth-Century Witness to the Andreas Text-Type: A Misreading in the Apocalypse's Textual ...

March 18, 7AM

Some interesting article in the recent journals:Ilaria Ramelli, 'The Emmaus Disciples and the Kerygma of the Resurrection (Lk 24,34):A Greek Variant and the Old Syriac, Coptic, and Latin Traditions' ZNW 105(2014), 1-19.Stephen C. Carlson, '“For Sinai is...

March 6, 10AM

March 4, 2AM

February 24, 5AM

Exhibit A: Greek papyri found in a box in a college libraryExhibit B: Medieval manuscript found in a box in a college library.NB. P52 was found in a box in a library (unfortunately wikipedia doesn't mention this)Just a reminder: "the best place to look fo...

February 21, 4PM

Don't forget this awesome TC conference at Southeastern Baptist seminary coming up in April: the prior announcement on ETC here: [Chris Keith] [David Black] [interpolation] [Jennifer Knust] [John David Punch] [Maurice Robinson] [Pericope adulterae] [Tommy Wasserman]

February 20, 7AM

From Trace to Text: Highlights from the University of Michigan Papyrus CollectionThis is a helpful introduction to the process of interpreting texts on papyrus.Searching the DDbDP (Or, How Fine are a Balrog’s Teeth?)This is a very helpful discussion of ...

February 19, 5AM

Bibliography for Epistle of Jude1.      TextNA27:Novum Testamentum Graece (ed. B. & K. Aland et al. [E. Nestle]; Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 199327, cf. 18981, 197926).NA28: Novum Testamentum Graece (ed. B. & K....

February 15, 4AM

There are some things I really like about Wikipedia (although I don't really buy into David Parker's view that the Bible grew like a wikipedia article). It always comes up first in a google search so it is easy to find. It sometimes has really good pictur...

February 14, 1PM

February 13, 4AM

Over at the Medieval manuscripts blog, Cillian O'Hogan has an interesting discussion of a small piece of papyrus in the Cotton collection: A Papyrus Puzzle and Some Purple Parchment  A Papyrus Puzzle and Some Purple ParchmentA Papyrus Puzzle and Some...

February 12, 5PM

Greetings friends, My palaeography/TC class has been assigned a GSI MS this semester, and we are having a lot of fun working on it.  It is an early minuscule, extant only in 9 leaves.We are working on trying to explain why the 9 leaves are&...


Mike Holmes is giving a special lecture on Feb 13th in Princeton on the hundredth anniversary of the birth of Bruce Metzger. More details here. Let us know if there is video Mike.


Peter Malik, 'The Earliest Corrections in Codex Sinaiticus: A Test Case from the Gospel of Mark' Bulletin of the American Society of Papyrologists 50(2013), 207-254.Abstract: One of the most intriguing aspects of the production of Codex Sinaiticus is the ...

February 11, 7AM

British Library Add MS 11840 (XII): Gospel Lectionary with ekphonetic notation (Gregory-Aland l189)     British Library Add MS 16184 (XIII): New Testament (Gregory-Aland 496) ...

February 5, 3AM

The Centro di Studi Papirologici of Università del Salento, Lecce, is organizing the Seventh Edition of the Scuola Estiva di Papirologia that will take place from July 14th to July 19th 2014.The School is open to graduates, last-year un...


This year the SBL International Meeting is held in Vienna, Austria 7-10 July. The Call for Papers has been extended to 12 February, so hurry up and submit a proposal to the Working with Biblical Manuscripts (Textual Criticism) program unit. I have now ste... [Call for Papers] [Conferences] [SBL Vienna 2014]

February 3, 7AM

At Hebrews 5.6, in the citation from Ps 109.4(LXX), P46* clearly has the word EPEUX. The corrector has changed this, by marking the word with dots and writing IEREUS interlinearly. This is an interesting reading because it raises a number of issues: on th...

January 31, 9AM

Codex Zacynthius is two Greek New Testament manuscripts in one. It is a palimpsest, with two levels of writing throughout. The upper text is lectionary 299, a thirteenth-century gospel lectionary. And the underlying text is 040 a manuscript of Luke 1...

January 30, 3AM

Last Monday, when Peter Head, Peter Gurry, and yours truly were having a good old conversation with the Münster folk deep in the heart of the Institute itself, we were playing around with the CBGM as a universal method for the past and present. I claimed... [CBGM] [Kurt Aland]

January 28, 7AM

Here are an interesting series of pictures from the header space above the start of the relevant columns of text in Codex Sinaiticus (from the Sinaiticus Project Website):These raise a couple of interesting issues. Firstly, given the general consistency I...

January 20, 3AM

Need to remember or revise some basic information about the Gospel of Thomas? Here is a guide I have used before and wrote up for a seminar last week.  Gospel according to Thomas: title acc. to the subscription in Nag Hammadi Codex IIGospel: signific...

January 17, 6AM

Fortunatianus was bishop of Aquileia in the middle of the fourth century. About him Jerome had the following to say (De Viris Illustribus 97 from here): Fortunatianus, an African by birth, bishop of Aquilia during the reign of Constantius, composed brief...

January 16, 9PM

I'm happy to announce that The Text of the New Testament in Contemporary Research, 2nd edition (ed. Ehrman and Holmes; Brill, 2013 [2012]), is now available in a paperback edition, at a considerably more affordable price (€59, $76). (Details available&n...

January 15, 4AM

Thought and Culture in Christian Egypt 284-641 AD (Cairo, 1-2 April 2014); already mentioned here.An International Seminar in Coptic Papyrology (Barcelona, 6-13 July 2014): (deadline 15 March 2014): more info here or here. International SBL (Vienna, ...

January 13, 10AM

Edmon L. Gallagher, 'The religious provenance of the Aquila manuscripts from the Cairo Genizah' Journal of Jewish Studies LXIV (2013), 283-305.Abstract:The Cairo Genizah yielded two palimpsest manuscripts of Aquila’s Greek translation of the Hebrew Bib...

January 9, 2AM

The New Testament volume of the six volume Complutensian Polyglot - Novum Testamentum Graece et Latine in Academia Complutensi Nouiter Impressum -  has a colophon at the conclusion of the Apocalypse which dates its printing to 10th January 1514, five...

January 2, 5AM

During the holidays, on 25 December, one of Sweden's finest exegetes ever, Prof. em. Birger Gerhardsson, passed away at the age of 87. Gerhardsson was born in 1926 in Vännäs. He studied in Uppsala and became ordained priest in the Church of Sweden in 19... [Birger Gerhardsson] [obituary]

December 24 2013, 2AM

Postdoc, NT Textual HistoryThe American Bible Society and the German Bible Society are awarding a post-doc research assistant at the Institute for New Testament Textual Research in Münster, Germany. The fellowship covers a period of 36 months, a fixed th...

December 17, 8AM

There are a few PhDs waiting to be written on how New Testament manuscripts refer back to the Old Testament. At times they do a marvellous job. Have a look here at the margin of minuscule 1739 at Gal 3:12 (I was there because I had to check 3:13 οτι γ... [GA 1739; Old Testament references; old in the new]

December 10, 11AM

Here is the bibliography/handout for my presentation at tomorrow's conference: Day Conference inPapyrology and Early Christianity/Biblical Studies (11.12.13)C.P. Thiede, ‘Papyrus Magdalen Greek 17 (Gregory-Aland P64): A Reappraisal’ ZPE 105 (1995), 13...

December 9, 12 AM

Three years ago (March, 2010), we reported on this blog about a major project to digitize 80000 Vatican MSS.  Although the announced project was divided into various phases, there seems to have been some delay. And in 2012 the Vatican began to co-ope... [Digitization] [Oxford Bodleian Library] [Polonsky Foundation] [Vatican Library]

December 6, 3AM

This session took place on Monday afternoon (I am working backwards through my "notes"). I think it had some problems at the outset. Firstly, although there is some allowable, necessary and fertile overlap between the fields, three out of five of the pape...

December 4, 5AM

Day Conference in Papyrology and Early Christianity/Biblical StudiesWednesday, December 11, 2013Tyndale House is pleased to host a second day conference featuring research papers on a variety of topics connecting papyrology and Biblical studies and readin...


Recently I responded in a blogpost (here) to a review by David Parker in JTS of the volume The Early Text of the New Testament (eds. Hill and Kruger; OUP, 2012). In the review I expressed the assumption that the editors Charles E. Hill and Michael J. Krug... [book review] [Charles Hill] [Mike Kruger] [response to review] [The Early Text of the NT]

December 3, 3AM

I will start my posts about SBL with the last day. After a visit to the hotel gym I was at the door of the bookroom for the 8AM rush. I managed to snag the display copy of New Documents 10 and picked up some other books before heading over to room 347 (vi...

November 28, 3AM

A copy of the first book known to have been printed in America - an English translation of the Psalms published in 1640) was sold at auction for $12,500,000 (plus extras). Highlights of the auction and a report here.

November 26, 5AM

There is something about 'first impressions'. The first pages will determine how critically and sympathetically I will read the remainder of the book, how prepared I am to take the author on trust, and to what extent I am prepared to recommend the book to...

November 21, 11PM

The SBL Annual Meeting is at hand. I will fly to Baltimore today. At the meeting (only) Andrew Knapp of Eisenbrauns will run a special sale on my monograph, The Epistle of Jude: Its Text and Transmission. My book is on display and sells for $20 (list pric... [Book Sale] [Eisenbrauns] [The Epistle of Jude] [Tommy Wasserman]

November 19, 8AM

November 12, 5AM

The following is a report by Peter Malik, who was invited to join the CSNTM expedition to photograph the Chester Beatty papyri – photos which have just been published on-line (see previous post).At the end of July 2013, I was privileged to join the CSNT... [Chester Beatty Biblical Papyri] [CSNTM] [GA P47] [Peter Malik]

November 10, 1PM

PRESSRELEASE FROM CSNTM:We are pleased to announce that as of Nov 8, high-resolution digital images of the Chester Beatty Papyri have been posted online at papyri are among the old...

November 8, 5AM

An invitation to a conference in Egypt, Cairo 1-2nd April 2014 about "Thought and Culture in Christian Egypt 284-641 AD.It will be hold at Ain Shams university, Faculty of Arts. Fees of the conference are 250$. The organizing committee will offer 3 da...

November 7, 5PM

SBL Press recently announced the following volume:Johannes de Vries and Martin Karrer, editors, Textual History and the Reception of Scripture in Early Christianity: Textgeschichte und Schriftrezeption im frühen Christentum (Septuagint and Cognate Studie...


The British Library has posted some nice images recently (announced here).Egerton Papyrus 2 (P. Lond. Christ. 1/P. Egerton 2, the Egerton Gospel) Papyrus 1531 (P. Oxy. IV 654, fragment of the Gospel of Thomas)Papyrus 2052 (P. Oxy. VIII 1073, ...

October 30, 2AM

I have recently read David Parker's review of The Early Text of the New Testament (eds. Hill and Kruger; OUP, 2012) with great interest, since I have contributed to that volume with an essay. The review has just published in the current Journal of Theolog... [Charles Hill] [David Parker] [Mike Kruger] [Reviews] [Text und Textwert] [The Early Text of the NT] [Tommy Wasserman]

October 29, 8AM

Here is one of those enigmatic treasures that can be found among the later manuscripts, Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana, Pluteo VIII.14. It is a composite manuscript that in its current shape contains the bulk of the letter of James on the first 18.5 folio... [Greek script] [Manuscripts of James] [Minuscule 197] [palaeography]

October 24, 9AM

Our annual blog dinner will take place on Sunday night, 24 November following the Textual Criticism / Digital Humanities joint session.  We have a reservation at the Hard Rock Café in the "Beatles' Library".  As always, the event is open to any...
Whilst working on my paper for the upcoming SBL in Baltimore (abstract here), I wrote a section which I cannot use in the paper, but would love to get some comments on. It is not about the Coherence Based Genealogical Method (CBGM) as such, but about a po...

October 21, 4AM

Two articles and four reviews have been published so far in the current volume of TC: A Journal of Biblical Textual Criticism vol. 18 (2013) – see contents below – and there is more coming soon.As one of the editors of this peer-reviewed journal, I wo... [TC Journal] [articles and reviews]

October 17, 6AM

As mentioned previously, the prominent Coptologist and Bible scholar, Karlheinz Schüssler, passed away in a tragic car accident on October 8, 2013.  He was an honorary Professor at the University of Salzburg, and an official obituary is now availabl...

October 15, 5AM

When you do history, the only real discoveries consist of unearthing things that everyone, or some, or at least the discover, did not know about till then.I had this experience when I followed up a note in Hoskier's Text of the Apocalypse. He notes that t...

October 14, 2PM

I have heard from David Parker the sad news that Prof. Karlheinz Schüssler (Salzburg) died in a car crash last Monday. Prof. Schüssler was editor of Biblia Coptica (the effort to register systematically all of the scattered leaves of early Cop...

October 11, 3AM

There is a a score of interesting articles and reviews related to manuscript studies and textual criticism in the current issue of Journal of Theological Studies, Vol. 64/2 (October) 2013:Articles Chris Keith, "On the Pericope Adulterae: A Response t... [articles and reviews] [Chris Jordan] [Chris Keith] [David Parker] [journal of theological studies] [Sherborne Lectionary]


This is how the new papal medal looked like:Clearly Jesus is spelled as Lesus. According to the source of this story (in Dutch), the medals have been withdrawn.
On Thursday 8 October, world-renowned Coptologist  Rodolphe Kasser passed away.Kasser was involved in the editing and publication of numerous important manuscripts, including Coptic gnostic texts from Nag Hammadi, Bodmer payri (with Biblical texts), ... [Rodolphe Kasser]

October 8, 9AM

I learned something fascinating about the Greek of Revelation that I had not expected, and certainly was never told. What everyone knows is that certain prepositions (such as δια, εις, υπο) take certain cases, with a number of prepositions being ...

October 7, 7AM

Emanuel Tov writes on Electronic Tools for the Study of the Hebrew Bible here.

October 4, 7AM

Seems that there is a bit of interest in marginalia at the moment.Life on the Edge: Marginalia A nice post on the John Rylands Library blog by John Hodgson with helpful images illustrating various cadels, drolleries, grotesques, and such things in mostly ...

September 30, 5AM

Nothing particularly sensational here (especially from a cinematographical perspective!), but fun to watch some friends here. A good brief intro and touches on some contemporary scholarly interests. I might have nuanced a few things differently (I would h...

September 28, 4AM

J.P. Ware, Synopsis of the Pauline Letters in Greek and English (Grand Rapids: Baker, 2010).This is not exactly a book review, just a blog post to say that I have found this book much more useful than I originally thought it would be when I got it a coupl...

September 25, 9AM

A.J. Forte, 'Observations on the 28th Revised Edition of Nestle-Aland's Novum Testamentum Graece' Biblica 94 (2013), 268-292.This is an interesting review or set of observations about the NA28, largely positive, and full of information. Among other points...

September 24, 8AM

Some time ago we posted the call for papers for a Conference on Scribal Practice in the Ancient and Antique Mediterranean World at Macquarie University in Sydney, Australia. The conference is this weekend and the abstracts (HT: What's New in Papyrology?) ...

September 23, 7AM

The inimitable T.C. Skeat wrote this in 1990:"In Scritti in Onore di Orsolina Montevecchi, Bologna 1978, pp. 373-376, I published a note entitled "Was re-rolling a papyrus roll an irksome and time-consuming task ?", in which I described experiments with r...

September 20, 4AM

Highly Recommended (don't let the fact that it is in Oxford put you off):The fifth Lincoln College International Summer School in Greek Palaeography will be held on 28 July-2 August 2014. The school offers a five-day introduction to the study of Greek m...

September 18, 12 AM

Pressrelease from the Centre for the Study of New Testament Manuscripts (CSNTM):17 September 2013

The Chester Beatty papyri, published in the 1930s and 1950s, are some of the oldest and most important biblical manuscripts known to exist. Housed at th... [Chester Beatty Biblical Papyri] [Digitised Manuscripts] [Manuscript photography] [CSNTM]

September 17, 5AM

I thought it would be a good idea to draw up a list of the best commentaries for textual criticism. Which commentaries show real independent thought about the text of the text they are treating? (We won't bother here with those which may be excellent in o...

September 14, 10AM

On the 3rd of September the British Library announced eleven new manuscripts had been digitised and the images placed on-line. These include six Greek Gospel manuscripts:Burney MS 19 (G-A 481; 10th Cent.) Burney MS 20 (G-A 482, AD 1285) Additional MS 2610...

September 13, 5AM

The University Library in Cambridge has acquired some interesting fragments of a Manichaean text written in Syriac (Camb., UL. MS. Or. 2552). More details are here:A lecture by Professor Nils Arne Pedersen on ‘The Syriac-Manichaean “Allberry fragments...


If there is one occupational hazard that threatens a good number of the text-critical guild, it is that of being pedantic. Squabbling over commas, dots in the margin, spelling, and one another's work (or lack thereof), we have seen it all.I caught myself ...

12 AM

Jac Perrin has agreed to share his recently defended thesis "Family 13 in Saint John's Gospel," which we reported on here. The remark by Perrin that we discussed on this blog that "the PA of several other witnesses was in Luke, but their textual content... [Family 13] [Jac Perrin] [f13]

September 12, 7AM

In the most recent New Testament Studies:Emily Gathergood, 'Papyrus 32 (Titus) as a Multi-text Codex: A New Reconstruction' NewTestament Studies 59 (2013), 588-606.Abstract: Following the recent emphasis on studying early Christian manuscripts as his...

September 11, 7AM

Not a trick question: 27. And there is more (that I learnt from Bart Ehrman): this is trinitarian, since the NT is about the Christian God, and therefore specifically about the Trinity.  And what is 27?  3 to the 3rd power (3 x 3 x 3).&nb...

September 10, 7AM

The Bibliographical Society of America has released a helpful Directory of Institutions in the United States and Canada with Pre-1600 Manuscript Holdings (compiled by Melissa Conway and Lisa Fagin Davis).

September 9, 7AM

The Guardian (oddly enough) has an interesting collection of attempts to present aspects of the Bible in visual form (here). My favourite is the picture above of biblical cross-references. Here is the description:This is about how the bible speaks to its...

September 4, 7AM

Today, as I received an invitation to join another discussion group for New Testament textual criticism, I was reminded about an old blogpost I wrote here six years ago (how long have I been blogging here?; the years go by) about the many discussion lists... [TC discussion lists]

August 30, 6AM

I am not sure if the word 'guess' is used in its proper lexical meaning, or what the reward is for getting it right, but some of us may want to have a go.Guess the Manuscript VI

August 23, 12 AM

How did Peter Head get involved in this blog? What benefits does he see in blogging? Should more scholars start blogging?If you want to hear Pete's take on these issues, read Joshua Mann's interview with Peter Head – one part of a series of interviews w... [biblioblog] [blogging] [Peter Head] [Interviews]

August 22, 9AM

I am getting out of shape, I assume, but I could use some opinions (we are getting into a TC version of crowd-sourcing here).In the following image (more detail here) there are two things I am less certain of. Issue 1First is the correction of ην ενδ...

August 20, 11PM

Jac Perrin has successfully defended his PhD thesis entitled "Family 13 in Saint John's Gospel," submitted to the University of Birmingham, and written under the supervision of Prof. D. C. Parker and examined by Profs. Ulrich Schmid and Paul Foster.Abstra... [Dissertation] [f13] [Family 13] [Gospel of John] [Jac Perrin] [Pericope adulterae] [thesis] [University of Birmingham]

August 16, 9AM

Over on Roger Pearse's blog I read a letter from Augustine regarding a copy of the City of God he had sent a certain Firmus. What I find fascinating is that Augustine gives detailed advice on how this work is to be bound into actual volumes. Apparantly Au...

August 7, 7AM

The CEDOPAL and The the University of Naples have the pleasure to invite you to the conference "Signs in Texts, Texts on Signs. Scholarship, Reading and Writing in the Greco-Roman World" to be held at the University of Liège, on the 6th and 7th Septem...

July 27, 8AM

I am offering 5 days of free download for my novel, The Scribes, A Novel about the Early Church, on Amazon's kindle, beginning on July 29. Peter Rodgers

July 26, 4AM

Our knowledge of the Gothic Bible in manuscript form rests on seven incomplete manuscripts (acc. to C. Falluomini's chapter in the new Status Quaestionis). In that chapter Falluomini comments: 'no new parts of the Gothic Bible have been found that would h... [Gothic] [Bologna] [Tornaghi] [Finazzi]

July 24, 2AM

Paul Anderson informs me that the Center for the Study and Preservation of the Majority Text has just published the 'Byzantine Greek New Testament: Family 35 Textform' at The pace of publication of new GNTs is beginning to pick up.

July 22, 4AM

Here is a very helpful website featuring resources for the study of Armenian manuscripts, including pdfs of catalogues from a wide variety of libraries, museums and monasteries all round the world, a load of other interesting things and editions of the Gr...

July 11, 2AM

Jim Leonard's review of McDonald's book on  Formation of the Bible is quite interesting. Read it here. (McDonald takes a big hit for an idiotic uninformed comment on p. 134)My review of Kostenberger and Kruger on The Heresy of Orthodoxy may also be i...

July 5, 4AM

Tim Finney has made available an article on-line "How To Discover Textual Groups"Abstract This article describes how to discover groups among New Testament witnesses using three different multivariate analysis (MVA) methods, focussing on textual variation... [multivariate analysis] [textual groups] [Tim Finney]

July 1, 5AM

The Bibliotheque Nationale is doing a great job in putting images of manuscripts on-line. Here is a list with sample page (or something of interest):Grec 9 (GA: 04; Codex Ephraimi Rescriptus): index page:Grec 49 (GA: 8, Gospels, eleventh century)Grec 81 (...

June 25, 6AM

I have received a copy of the NIV Greek and English New Testament edited by John R. Kohlenberger III (Zondervan, 2012), and here is a brief description focusing on the textcritical aspects of particular interest for our blog.The book has the Greek and Eng...

June 24, 6AM

"The extant proto-masoretic manuscripts show that the text had been fixed not only in content but also in orthography by the third century BC." (Geoffrey Khan, 'Languages of the Old Testament' in Cambridge History of the Bible, Vol. 1, p. 5).


The bidding on this item is over, but it just shows that if you have only a little money around there are still interesting bits for sale. The interesting part is in the vellum binding, of course. I think we have a manuscript of Matthew used as a protecti...

June 12, 8AM

In a recent conversation with Bruce Morill on the indexing of a Romans manuscript (GA 1506), he pointed out that I had indexed a particular page as Rom 14:23-15:8, though the correct indexing is Rom 14:23; 16:25-27; Rom15:1-8. Of course he was right, but ...

June 11, 8AM

All great movies have a sequel.  Like a Terminator returning from the future to change the course of history, the Virtual Manuscript Room has now officially reappeared with a new scholarly edge.  The old VMR (1.0) was like the musuem that you vi...

June 3, 8AM

Some recent examples confirm Head's rule - that the best place to look for ancient manuscripts is in a library (previous examples include P52, Luther's lectures on Romans, the Archimedes Palimpsest): The discovery of an ancient Torah scroll in an Italian ...

May 29, 12 PM

Today I hit two places where the CNTTS apparatus claims that a manuscript has a correction, but where I had severe doubts in both cases. Not that I disagreed that the 'extra' words were written in between the lines, but not every interlinear addition is a...

May 28, 5AM

There are three spellings in the manuscripts:  suzuge: P16 (suz[uge); )* B D1 E P Y (gnhsie kai suzuge) 075; and (with the word order: suzuge gnhsie): K L 049 056 0142 0150 0151;  sunzuge: P46 )2[=ca] A D*.c [text for Tregelles, Tischendorf, Wes...

May 23, 4AM

The pursuits of Scriptural criticism are so quiet, so laborious, that they can have few charms for the votary of fame, or the courtier of preferment: they always have been, perhaps they always must be, the choice employment mainly of those, who, feeling c...

May 22, 2AM

Eph 6.21 in the NA28 has probably one of the most complex things ever seen in an apparatus. Whereas NA27 simply cited Sinaiticus in support of the txt at the word order variant: PANTA GNWRISEI UMIN TUXIKOS; NA28 now has: ALEPH in support of the same readi...

May 13, 7AM

Sometimes there is a certain amount of doubt what a manuscript reads at a particular point. If there is a variant reading and a manuscript has only a few of the letters but these letters fit with one reading and not with the other it is acceptable practic...

May 8, 9AM

The latest issue of Novum Testamentum has an interesting article:J. van Nes, '"Faith(fulness) of the Son of God"? Galatians 2:20b Reconsidered' NovT 55 (2013), 127-139.In this article van Nes argues for the P46 reading: EN PISTEI ZW TOU QEOU KAI XRISTOU a...

April 27, 7AM

The text of James 1:21 has not undergone any change between the NA27 and NA28, but it has been improved anyway.This is how it is printed in NA27:διὸ ἀποθέμενοι πᾶσαν ῥυπαρίαν καὶ περισσείαν κακίας ἐ...

April 26, 12 AM

Sponsor Peter Head in Swimathon, 26-28 April 2013 (click here)As you may know, co-blogger Peter Head has a long sporting career behind him. He came in 42nd place in the Olympic racewalking in Beijing 2008, after somewhat unexpectedly having received a wil... [Swimathon] [Peter Head] [fundraising]

April 22, 6AM

Over at RBECS Edgar Ebojo has offered a careful review of Charles E. Hill and Michael J. Kruger, eds., The Early Text of the New Testament (Oxford: OUP, 2012).  Among other things he pinpoints an interesting notion reflected in the work, in that 'scr...

April 16, 10PM

I am giving a paper on the “Outer Margins of Nestle/Aland 28” for the Pacific Northwest Regional meeting of the Society of Biblical Literature at Seattle University in Seattle, Washington on Friday, May 3.  The following is a brief description of...


JETS Vol 56, No. 1 (March 2013): Review of M.J. Kruger's CANON REVISITED: ESTABLISHING THE ORIGINS AND AUTHORITY OF THE NEW TESTAMENT BOOKS (Benjamin Laird); Review of L.M. McDonald's FORMATION OF THE BIBLE: THE STORY OF THE CHURCH'S CANON (Ryan J. C... [Granville Sharp] [Stanley Porter] [Lee Martin McDonald] [Dan Wallace] [Nestle-Aland 28] [M.J. Kruger]

April 15, 12 AM

Jim Spinti of Eisenbrauns tells me that the German Bible Society is going to publish Biblia Graeca – Septuagint and NA28 this fall.DescriptionThis edition combines the Rahlfs-Hanhart Septuagint (Greek translation of the Hebrew Old Testament) with the 28... [Biblia Graeca – Septuagint and NA28] [book notes]

April 12, 9AM

The program for the IOSCS Congress in Munich has been posted here. There is a very good lineup of presentations on the LXX for this congress. On day two I will present a paper for the section on Manuscripts. I list the three papers and their abstracts bel...

April 10, 7PM

We've played this game before. Someone submits a statement about TC from the BBC or some other news media, and we count how many errors are contained therein. But this time, it comes from a Hendrickson publication entitled, Formation of the Bible: The Sto... [NA28] [Hendrickson Publishers] [Lee Martin McDonald] [UBS5] [Bible Translation]

April 5, 8AM

When examining an Armenian manuscript from Bzommar (n° 509, a Mashtots from the 16th Century) on the HMML website, I was surprised to discover three fly leaves from a Greek lectionary of the Gospels. Folio 01r contains Mt 20:1-8, Folio 168r contains Mt 1...

March 31, 2PM

The 5th of March, 2013, the participants of the Eighth Birmingham Colloquium on the Textual Criticism of the New Testament visited the Leicester Record Office in order to take a look at the famous Leicester Codex, minuscule 69.David Parker lecturing on th...

March 25, 1AM

Over at his new website, Brice Jones has published a review of The Early Text of the New Testament (eds. Kruger & Hill).I note with satisfaction that this reviewer "found the approach and format of Wasserman’s essay to be the most clear of all ... [Brice Jones] [book review] [The Early Text of the NT] [Charles Hill] [theological agenda] [Mike Kruger]

March 22, 7AM

Brice Jones has a new web-site with a blog and papyrological resources. On his blog he reviews the recent book The Text of the New Testament in Contemporary Research: Essays on the Status Quaestionis (although he mostly comments on only two chapters); he ...

March 21, 4PM

Drew Longacre has a call for papers for the 3rd University of Birmingham Biblical Studies Postgraduate Day Conference Call for Papers on his blog. Given the location (Birmingham, UK, not Alabama) and the theme "Unity and Diversity in Text and Traditi...

March 20, 2AM

News from the Centre for the Study of New Testament Manuscripts (Robert D. Marcello):In November of 2011 CSNTM traveled to the Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana (BML) in Florence Italy. This is a phenomenal library founded by the Medici family. Here, the old... [GA 0171] [P48] [Digitization] [P35] [P95] [P36] [P89] [GA 620] [CSNTM] [GA 367] [Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana]

March 19, 3AM

Sometimes it is a pain to get your head around what a manuscript actually reads, especially when there are corrections involved. The image below is from the Codex Ephraemi rescriptus 'C', though it is only 'rescriptus' here in Acts 23:6 because of the era... [Acts 23:6] [Codex Ephraemi Rescriptus] [NA28 Apparatus]

March 14, 12 AM

M 610Owen Jarus of Live Science begins his article, "A newly deciphered Egyptian text, dating back almost 1,200 years, tells part of the crucifixion story of Jesus with apocryphal plot twists, some of which have never been seen before." (full article)&nbs...

March 13, 2AM

In a comment to the previous post on a reassessment of the date of the early NT papyri, Christian Askeland mentioned a new resource for the study of ancient paleography, PapPal, which certainly deserves to be mentioned in a main post. Here is the ann... [Dating] [Papyrus] [Papyri] [paleography] [Rodney Ast] [pappal] [palaeography]

March 11, 6AM

A very controversial issue is the date of the early papyri of the NT. On his blog, Larry Hurtado summarizes a very important recent article on the subject of "theological palaeography":Pasquale Orsini & Willy Clarysse, “Early New Testament Manu... [Dating] [Papyri] [Hurtado] [Claryssee] [Orsini]

March 8, 1AM

Some seven years ago, Peter Head compiled a useful blogpost with advice on how to check patristic citations (link in the right margin).However, in this post I would like to mention two additional resources:1. International Greek New Testament Project: Bib... [patristic citations] [Sources Chrétiennes] [IGNTP] [advices and resources] [Biblindex]

February 27, 1AM

A beuatiful facsimile edition of the Korça Codex 93 (=GA 2902), now deposited in the National Archive of Albania in Tirana, has recently been published in 1300 copies. Here are some extracts from the news flash on the Orthodox Autocephalous Church of Alb... [GA 2902] [Korca Codex] [facsimiles] [Tirana] [Andi Rembeci] [CSNTM] [Simon Crisp]

February 25, 1AM

Following up on Mike Holmes' post on the changes between the 1st and 2nd editions of the Editio Critica Maior, this blogpost summarizes the presentation by Klaus Wachtel of the INTF, Münster, at the SBL in Chicago.The presentation was part of a sess... [Klaus Wachtel] [SBL Chicago 2012] [Nestle-Aland 28] [ECM]

February 22, 3AM

A little lesson on the use of brackets ( . ) in the apparatus of NA28.In Acts 21:5 the text reads either (with selected evidence for the word order variation ημας εξαρτισαι from NA28 [mainly]):οτε δε εγενετο εξαρτισαι η... [Acts 21:5] [NA28 Apparatus]

February 20, 1AM

The Eighth Birmingham Colloquium on the Textual Criticism of the New Testament is rapidly approaching, taking place in Birmingham on 5-6 March 2013.On this page (University of Birmingham) you find just about everything you need to know (including a boo... [Birmingham colloquium] [Conferences]