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March 16 2018, 5AM

We are in the third month since the release of The Biblical Canon Lists from Early Christianity: Texts and Analysis, and there are now two blog reviews and an amazing discount to report. First, the discount. Amazon is currently giving the book away at a... [canon] [Amazon] [Biblical Canon Lists] [jim west] [Larry Hurtado]

February 28, 7AM

Over on the ETC Blog, Peter Gurry has set up a raffle for a chance to win a free copy of my and Ed Gallagher’s The Biblical Canon Lists from Early Christianity: Texts and Analysis. Click through to enter to win the book. For more on the book, see t... [canon] [Evangelical Textual Criticism Blog] [Biblical Canon Lists] [Book Giveaway] [ETC blog]

January 25, 4AM

Yesterday, for any who missed it, over on the Oxford University Press Blog, Ed Gallagher and I posted The Origins of the Reformation Bible. As you may well guess, the origins and debates over the contents of the Bible during the Reformation period were l... [canon] [Canon Lists] [OUP Blog] [Reformation Bible]

December 30 2017, 7AM

Although I haven’t blogged here in a while, I have been busy. Phoenix Seminary has been trying to launch a blog, and I have contributed a couple of pieces to it over the last month: On The Biblical Canon Lists. My briefest attempt to define and des... [Life Update] [Phoenix Seminary Blog] [blogging] [New Year]

November 25, 10AM

It’s hard to believe that we have been ministering and teaching at Phoenix Seminary for five and a half years already (since Fall 2012). Teaching fine students and working with wonderful colleagues has made these years some of the sweetest of our li... [Life Update] [Research Projects] [sabbatical] [SEBTS]

November 9, 5AM

Oxford University Press is currently running its Celebrate Friends & Family Sale with 40% off and Free Shipping on most of its online bookstore. Now, you can preorder The Biblical Canon Lists from Early Christianity at the amazing low price of $27.00... [canon] [Biblical Canon Lists] [OUP]

October 24, 6AM

There is still time to register for the Friday lecture at Phoenix Seminary or you can simply show up at the door at 10:00 AM this Friday. It is free and open to the public. You will also be able to tune in and watch the lecture on Friday morning via ... [theology] [Lee Irons] [Martin Luther] [Phoenix Seminary Lecture] [Reformation 500] [Righteousness of God]

October 23, 3AM

We are about one week away from the UK release (Nov. 2) of The Biblical Canon Lists from Early Christianity: Texts and Analysis written by me and Ed Gallagher and published by Oxford. You can preview the book on Google Books. You can also pre-order the ... [canon] [Biblical Canon Lists] [OUP Publication] [Early Christian Studies]

October 9, 5AM

Over on the ETC blog, I wrote on some key ideas in chapter 7, “Manuscripts and Christian Book Production,” in Michael Kruger’s Canon Revisited. In this chapter, Kruger attempts to show what we can learn about New Testament canon formatio... [canon] [Evangelical Textual Criticism Blog] [apocrypha] [Apostolic Fathers] [greek manuscripts] [Michael Kruger] [New Testament Canon]

October 2, 3AM

The following article is reproduced from The Gospel Witness 65.6 (1986): 22 (102) with permission. The Gospel Witness is a publication of Jarvis St. Baptist Church in Toronto, Ontario that would devote one issue per year to Toronto Baptist Seminary. Dr. P... [Biblical languages] [Greek] [Hebrew] [Peter Gentry] [Seminary Curriculum]

October 1, 12 PM

The Biblical Studies Carnival for September has been posted at Reading Acts. Lots of links attesting much activity around the biblioblogosphere last month. Make sure to check it out. [Biblical Studies Carnival] [Biblical Studies] [carnival]

September 25, 3AM

By Yuvalr Mark 1:13 with its clause, “and he (i.e. Jesus) was with the wild beasts,” has intrigued me over the years. Here are some thoughts on it. In brief, the references “he was with the wild beasts” and “the angels were m... [Biblical Theology] [Leviticus 26:6] [Mark 1:13] [Old Testament Allusions] [Psalm 91:11-13]

September 18, 7AM

With this post, I want to begin a series “X Christian from Church History on the Biblical Languages.” I often share these sorts of quotes with my seminary students, and I thought they might be helpful to others as well. These posts are intende... [Biblical languages] [Book Quotes] [Greek] [Hebrew] [John Wesley] [Seminary Training]

September 17, 5PM

I’ve posted my latest on the ETC blog. The post attempts to show how MSS further contextualize the conceptual world of the biblical. I include lots of images of Daniel MSS to try to visualize what the title “Daniel” meant in late Antiqui... [canon] [Daniel] [Evangelical Textual Criticism Blog] [Manuscripts] [Greek MSS] [Syriac MSS]

September 13, 7AM

Reading Mossflower by Brian Jacques (the prequel to Redwall) to my children in the evenings before bed has been sheer delight. In addition to the adventure themes that stir the imaginations of my kids, I’m continually struck by the virtue and wisd... [Book Quotes] [Brian Jacques] [Children's Literature] [Mossflower] [virtue]

September 11, 4AM

In the last post, we looked at Geoffrey Hahneman’s reasons for a fourth-century date for the closing of the Old Testament canon. In this post, I supply some response to his interpretation of the evidence. (1) Hahneman began with the evidence of the ... [canon] [Uncategorized] [Geoffrey Mark Hahneman] [Muratorian Fragment] [New Testament] [old testament]

September 4, 4AM

One of the key elements of a modern definition of canon or a list is closure. The question of when was the canon or list of the Old Testament sacred scriptures closed has become the topic of much debate. Furthermore, some scholars have tied the closing o... [canon] [Geoffrey Mark Hahneman] [Muratorian Fragment] [New Testament Canon] [Old Testament Canon]

September 1, 11AM

I was unaware that these Biblical Studies “Carnivals” were still a thing, and I was pleasantly surprised to have one of my posts from August on Canon and Codex mentioned in the round up. Thank you, Jason at Eis Doxan, for your labors in assem... [Uncategorized]

August 28, 4AM

The Old Greek (OG) translators are often times (mis)understood to be mechanical in their approach to translating the Hebrew Text (HT), often pictured as giving a plain, or even rigid, word for word rendering of their Hebrew source. Of course this descript... [Biblical languages] [Greek] [Hebrew] [Isaiah] [Textual Studies] [Uncategorized] [Gensis 11:3-4] [Isaiah 9:9] [Old Greek Isaiah]

August 21, 5AM

I completed a key summer reading goal: The Old Testament is Dying: A Diagnosis and Recommended Treatment (Grand Rapids: Baker, 2017) by Brent A. Strawn of Emory University in Atlanta, GA. Strawn divides his book into three parts: (1) The Old Testament as... [Uncategorized]

August 14, 5AM

I have posted my answers to these questions over on the Evangelical Textual Criticism blog. If you are interested in the Bible’s text history and its history of interpretation, you may want to read this post, which highlights one interesting aspect ... [Uncategorized] [Catena Manuscripts] [Manuscripts] [Old Greek Job]

August 12, 5AM

For my birthday, my wife bought me John Muir’s Wilderness Essays. It has a number of gems in it, and I have found the first essay, “Discovery of Glacier Bay,” to be a fascinating description of the method and joy of discovery. Surely, th... [Uncategorized]

August 7, 3AM

Most readers will be familiar with the Greek version of the Septuagint. Fewer will have heard of the Jewish revisers/translators, Theodotion, Aquila, and Symmachus. I plan to treat these three in more depth from Epiphanius’s vantage point at a later... [Uncategorized] [Epiphanius] [Eusebius] [Fifth Edition] [Hexapla] [Hypomnestikon] [origen] [Psalm 1:1] [Sixth Edition]

August 4, 9AM

July 31, 3AM

Canon and Codex. Surely, the alliteration indicates that these ideas are co-extensive, right? Depends on whom one asks. Armin Lange in the same article referenced here says: I have also referred repeatedly to the invention of the mega-codices as a catalys... [Biblical Theory] [canon] [Manuscripts] [Armin Lange] [Codex] [old testament] [ThB]

July 27, 11AM

Four months from now the Society of Biblical Literature will meet in Boston. Several papers pertain to research on the Hexapla, with a whole session of the IOSCS devoted to the subject. In that section, several members of the Hexapla Institute are giving ... [Uncategorized]

July 24, 3AM

Over at Evangelical Textual Criticism I summarize the aims and purpose of the Textual History of the Bible. I have mentioned THB‘s article on the Canon of the Hebrew Bible elsewhere on my blog. I do not review this work. I am only interested in dra... [Uncategorized]

July 16, 7AM

Introduction Patristic biblical theory is complex, and reductionism is difficult to avoid. For reasons I do not understand, folks still frame the complex situation in terms of “the church fathers read the Greek Septuagint” or the church “... [Uncategorized] [Epiphanius] [Greek] [Hebrew] [old testament] [Septuagint]

July 13, 6AM

Introduction Continuing the description of Epiphanius’s biblical theory (see Part 1; Part 2.1; Part 2.2; Part 3.1; Part 3.2), in this post I describe Epiphanius’s evaluation of the additions in the Greek translation vis-à-vis the Hebrew text.... [Uncategorized]

July 12, 2PM

I plan for one or two more posts on Epiphanius’s biblical theory, but today I’m reading and reviewing new and older works on the formation of the canon of the Christian Old Testament for an upcoming presentation in November. While reading Armi... [Uncategorized]

July 11, 6AM

Introduction Continuing the description of Epiphanius’s biblical theory (see Part 1; Part 2.1; Part 2.2; Part 3.1), in this post and the next I present Epiphanius’s evaluation of the Greek translation vis-à-vis the Hebrew text and the later J... [Uncategorized]

July 9, 9AM

Introduction In the past three posts (Part 1; Part 2.1; Part 2.2) we have been enquiring into the biblical theory of Epiphanius of Salamis; that is, how did Epiphanius conceive of the Bible? In the next posts, we take up the subject of the Greek translati... [Uncategorized] [Biblical Theory] [Epiphanius] [Hebrew] [Septuagint]

July 7, 4PM

My quick review of an important contribution to a steadily forming debate on the ordering of the books of the Old Testament / Hebrew Bible. [Uncategorized]

July 6, 8AM

Introduction Continuing in a series of posts attempting to describe Epiphanius’s biblical theory (see Part 1 and Part 2.1), in this post are reasons 3–5 for holding that Epiphanius considered the Hebrew text as a crucial part of his biblical theor... [Uncategorized]

September 25 2013, 11AM

In a previous post, I used an illustration to explain how people can look at the same body of evidence and interpret it differently. In no way did I intend it to be an ad hominem argument or for it to be uncharitable towards Michael Law. If one read the p... [Uncategorized]


As stated in the first post, Michael Law set out to write a narrative history of the Septuagint, a worthwhile endeavor to say the least. So much goes into writing a history but the first obstacle one must face is that the facts are not self-interpreting. ... [canon] [Sirach]

September 18, 9AM

The fanfare over the release of T. M. Law’s When God Spoke Greek was fierce. Michael Law posted a few interviews over at his site. There were numerous blog reviews. See the Near Emmaus blog for the blog tour summary. Now that the fanfare is dying d... [Uncategorized]

June 6, 12 PM

This series of posts may be too ambitious for a blog, but I hope to present some of the key issues and the scholars involved with this textual problem and the other significant textual problems in Isaiah generally. I will present the texts in this post an... [Critical Scholarship] [Isaiah] [Masoretic Text] [Qumran] [Septuagint] [Textual Studies] [Dead Sea Scrolls]

June 1, 7AM

A light post for the weekend. The congress of the International Organization for Septuagint and Cognate Studies (IOSCS) meets August 1-3 in Munich. The program is posted here. The complete list of abstracts is here. I will be presenting a paper for the ... [Critical Scholarship]

May 31, 10AM

I have made an update to the post καίγε in Joel 2:29 and Acts 2:18, which interacts briefly with Steve Runge’s comments on Acts 2:18. I post the Update here as well: UPDATE: Brian Davidson informed me that Steve Runge wrote a paper on Joel ... [Acts] [Greek] [Hebrew] [Septuagint] [Textual Studies] [Theodotion]

May 30, 11AM

Blogging has been a low priority for me this past year since my transition to Phoenix last summer. My first year of teaching at Phoenix Seminary was both challenging and satisfying. Currently I am teaching a course on the Septuagint, Readings in the Septu... [Acts] [Masoretic Text] [New Testament] [Septuagint] [Textual Studies] [Theodotion] [Uncategorized]

August 30, 6AM

At the end of July I moved my family from Louisville, KY to Phoenix, AZ to take a teaching position at Phoenix Seminary. Phoenix is a wonderful city even though it is hot in August. I started teaching last week and am almost through week two already. I te... [Uncategorized]

April 16, 1PM

I’m very thankful to Peter Gentry and Jim Hamilton for serving on my dissertation committee as well as to Claude Cox and Jerome Lund for serving in the capacity of external examiners. I have relatively few edits to make before submitting the final d... [Uncategorized]

March 26, 10AM

I agree completely with a recent post by Jim Hamilton on the right use of a seminary education. I will continue to emphasize that the student who desires to be a pastor must be able to access the Bible and in order to do that he must learn the languages, ... [Biblical languages]


Southern Seminary has a wonderful tradition of having select faculty members give formal addresses to the faculty and seminary community at large. This semester Dr. Wellum gave an address entitled “What does the Extent of the Atonement have to do wi... [Biblical Theology] [Ecclesiology] [theology]

February 21, 11AM

Michael Law has posted a short, but significant piece on Jerome’s use of Aquila as a source of the Vulgate. In this field, there are few scholars who post on these significant matters, so I thought I would draw more attention to it. Thanks for shari... [Aquila] [Hexapla] [jerome]

February 10, 2PM

I have been thinking about ways in which the Three (Aquila, Symmachus, and Theodotion) provide an extra layer of Jewish Greek background for the study of the New Testament. There may not be direct influence of the Three on the NT authors, although, if The... [Hexapla] [I Corinthians] [Septuagint] [Textual Studies] [Theodotion]

July 1 2011, 3AM

I arrived home on the 28th and then my wife and I swiftly departed from the airport to Cincinnati for a little R&R and to celebrate our 8th wedding anniversary (the official date is July 5th, but Mama was in town and watched the kids for us). The trip... [Uncategorized]

June 23, 8AM

My time in Goettingen has been very profitable thus far. I have scanned or photographed most of the necessary manuscripts (mss) for my project (of course one can’t have too many, but I think I have the important ones). Dr. Gentry and I took a trip t... [Research Trips (Germany)]

June 15, 4AM

I arrived in Göttingen yesterday safe and sound. It was not an easy day of travel, since I came down with a stomach bug or virus 4 hours before going to the airport. My wife contracted this virus before me and so we were both very tired and not at our be... [Uncategorized]

June 6, 1PM

I have the privilege of traveling to Göttingen, Germany for dissertation research (“A Critical Edition of the Fragments of Origen’s Hexapla: Job 22-42″; Hexapla Institute) at the Septuaginta-Unternehmen. I am very grateful to Southern S... [Research Trips (Germany)]